Exam II. Chapters 16, 7, 13, 10 and 12, Labs 5, 6, 7/8 . Chapter 16 Fingerprints 1. What contributions did Henry Faulds , Francis Galton, Juan Vucetich and Edward Richard Henry each make to fingerprinting ?.
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Chapters 16, 7, 13, 10 and 12,
Labs 5, 6, 7/8
Chapter 16 Fingerprints1. What contributions did Henry Faulds, Francis Galton, Juan Vucetich and Edward Richard Henry each make to fingerprinting?
- The probability that two fingerprints could match is low.
- There are an estimated 64 billion different individual prints.
have had prints taken over the past 90 years in the FBI central system-- no two have ever been found to be identical!
Figure 16-3 Cross section of human skin.
- thin skin has 4 layers
- thick/friction skin has 5 layers
Figure 16-3 Cross section of human skin.
Figure 16-5 Loop pattern.
Figure 16-6 Whorl patterns.
Figure 16-7 Arch patterns.
Assign the number of points for each finger that has a whorl and substitute into the equation:
right right left left left
index ring thumb middle little + 1
right right right left left
thumb middle little index ring +1
e.g. iodine crystals
Chapter 7 The Microscope fingerprints to be systematically classified:20. What are the differences between a simple microscope, a compound microscope, and a stereoscope or dissecting microscope?
e.g. magnifying lens
- connects eyepiece to nosepiece
- scanning/low (4x)
- medium (10x)
- high (40x)
- oil immersion (60x)
- platform on which microscope slide rests
- used for adjusting the position of the slide for viewing
- controls large movements of the stage or nosepiece
- controls more precise focusing under higher powered objectives
- regulates the amount of light passing through the slide
- light source
- provides support for microscope
24. Be fingerprints to be systematically classified:able to calculate the diameter of a field of view under a new objective when given the magnification and diameter of a field of view under another objective.
Old FV (microns)
Increase in Mag
- Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
- Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
imbricate fingerprints to be systematically classified:
coronal29. What scale patterns are found in the cuticles of humans and animals?
Figure 13-2 Scale patterns of various types of hair.
Figure 13-4 Medulla patterns for various types of hair.
- Human hair usually has an MI of 1/3 or less.
- Animal hairs usually have an MI of ½ or more.
Figure 13-6 Hair roots in the anagen phase, catagenphase, and telogen phase.
- obtained from follicular tags of hairs in the anagen or catagen phases
- can be obtained from any hairs 1-2 cm in length
e.g. animal- wool, cashmere, fur
Figure 13-8 Photomicrograph of cotton fiber.
e.g. rayon (regenerated fiber), nylon (synthetic fibers)
Table 13-1 Major Generic Fibers
Figure 13-13 A scanning electron photomicrograph of the cross section of a nylon fiber removed from a sheet used to transport the body of a murder victim. The fiber, associated with a carpet in Wayne Williams’s home, was manufactured in 1971 in relatively small quantities.
- humans- imbricate; animals- imbricate,
spinous or coronal
- humans 1/3 or less; animals ½ or more
- discard their nuclei, mitochondria and most organelles during development.
e.g. Rh + allele is dominant to Rh - allele
Advantages fingerprints to be systematically classified:
Luminol glows even in the presence of certain other fluids-- semen, feces, bleach, tonic water, potatoes, etc.
Figure 10-8 Gel Diffusion Test
Chapter 12 Crime-Scene Reconstruction: Bloodstain Pattern Analysis71. How does surface texture influence bloodstains? What is satellite spatter?
Figure 12-2 Bloodstain on glass surface versus cotton sheet.
Figure 12-3 Bloodstain pattern produced by drops of blood traveling from left to right.
Type A blood clumps in anti-A serum
Type B blood clumps in anti-B serum
Type AB blood clumps in both anti-A and anti-B
Type O blood does not clump in either anti-A or anti-B
width of stain = sine of the impact angle
length of stain