Peds Case Study #3: DKADiabetic KetoacidosisBy:Michelle Scarlett & Emma Fleck
Ryan is a 5 year old male transferred from the PICU to the med/surgunit • Dx: Diabetic ketoacidosis (new diagnosis) • Hx: Lethargic and decreased LOC this afternoon with increased appetite and fluid intake x 3 days. No other hospital admissions/surgeries Hx & Dx
Objective Findings: • Vitals: • BP 110/56, HR 88, RR 20, Temp 98.5 PO • Wt: • 36.2kg/79.64lbs • Percentile on growth chart for Wt: >99% • Subjective Findings: • Patient active and playful. • No c/o pain Data & Labs
Other: • Parents present at bed side; father a RT. While admitted in PICU, family’s home burned down along with the loss of two pets and ptis unaware • Labs: • Blood sugar =115-225 • Urine dip sticks=positive for ketones • Other blood work within normal limits Data & Labs
Humulin-R (sliding scale) SC • 70-130=0 unit • 131-180=2 units • 181-240=4 units… • Lantus 7 units SC q morning • Tylenol 360mg PO pain/fever Medications
Diet: Regular for age, limit sweets • Activity: Ad lib (as desired) • Vitals: Every 4 hours • BS check ac (TID) and HS • Daily weight • Initial diabetic educator consultation complete - nutrition, insulin administration, and location sites reviewed. • Call physician with any concerns or change in patient condition Orders
Patient assessment this morning: • BS at 0730 is 142 • Vital signs are stable • Lungs: clear • Heart: regular rhythm, no abnormal sounds • Patient is alert, playful, and still afraid of needles • Patient’s mother is at bedside and appears exhausted but pleasant. Morning Assessment
BS 142 @ 0730 • Blood work within normal limits • Vital signs stable • Lung and Heart assessments within normal limits • Pt is alert and playful • Pt is fearful of needles Important Assessment Data:
Is there additional data that you would like to obtain before you notify the physician about this patient? • The trend of the patients weight since admission • If Ryan has a change in hunger and thirst since admission • Any change in LOC • If there’s ketones in the urine Notifying the physician
It is not an emergency, just calling to update the physician about Ryan’s current status. • Patient's blood glucose is under control • Patient is stable and he does not show any signs or symptoms of DKA • Vital signs are stable • Assessment within normal limits • If any signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and cerebral ademaoccur, physician will be notified immediately Contacting the Physician:
Nurse: “Hello Dr. Scarlett I’m Emma, the nurse taking care of Ryan, a 5 year old admitted the other day in the PICU for DKA. Ryan is newly dx with type 1 diabetes. Ryan is currently stable on the med surg floor. At 07:30AM this morning, Ryan’s BS was 142, his heart sounds are regular rhythm, no abnormal sounds, lungs are clear, and he is alert and playful. Vitals and labs are within normal limits with some traces of ketones. The diabetes educator came in this morning and discussed nutrition, insulin administration and sites with the family. The patient taking Lantus 7 units SC q morning and Humlin-R (sliding) SC”is at this time. Nurse: “However, I’m concerned that because Ryan is afraid of needles it is going to be hard to manage his diabetes. In order to reduce needle exposure and I want to request removing Humlin-R and just continue using the long acting insulin or create a mixture. That way it will cover Ryan throughout the day and reduce getting needle stick. However, if it is possible to maybe consider putting Ryan on a insulin pump to reduce injections. Physician: “I will remove Humlin-R from the medication list. When I make my rounds, I will discuss the changes of insulin with the family and determine whether the patient should use the insulin pump” I want you to make sure the family understands this new medication change and for you to monitor the patient’s blood glucose closely to see how he tolerates the change. Notify me if there are signs of hypo/hyperglycemia and cerebral edema we will reevaluate the medication order.” Phone Conversation:
What orders might you expect or request from the physician if applicable? • Ryan is afraid of needles so request a long acting insulin to reduce needle exposure and cover the pt throughout the day. Or consider a insulin pump. Expected Orders from Physician:
Continuous reassessment and monitoring • Reduce the amount of needle sticks • Teach patient to cope with finger sticks • Daily weight • Food/beverage log (intake and output) • BS check ac (TID) and at bedtime • Contact social worker because Ryan’s house was burned down and he and his family are homeless • Offer the mom a break Highest priority is BS check ac (TID) and at bedtime to monitor pt condition, because the physician changed the patient's insulin order. Patient Interventions:
Hypoglycaemia, • Hypokalaemia, • Relapses of DKA • Cerebral edema • Blood pressure - Usually normal until terminal stages of illness • Tachycardia - May be present • Capillary refill - Initially maintained, but a combination of increasing acidosis and dehydration cause poor tissue perfusion • Kussmaul breathing or deep sighing respiration - A mark of acidosis; these symptoms may be mistaken for status asthmaticus, pneumonia, and even hysterical hyperventilation • Ketone odor - Patient may have a smell of ketones on the breath, although many people cannot detect this smell • Impaired consciousness - Occurs in approximately 20% of patients • Coma - May be present in 10% of patients • Abdominal tenderness - May occur; tenderness is usually nonspecific or epigastric in location; bowel sounds may be reduced or absent in severe cases Potential problems or Complications to be aware of
Carefully monitor potassium status to prevent complications from hypokalemia. • Hypoglycemia-, continuous insulin infusions are administered together with dextrose when blood glucose levels fall below 200 mg/dL (11 mmol/L). • Specifically designed recording charts (measurements of clinical and biochemical status, fluid balance, and insulin prescription. • Frequent review of neurologic status—at least hourly (or any time a change in the level of consciousness is suspected)—is essential during the first 12 hours of diabetic ketoacidosis treatment. • Promptly treat any suspected cerebral edemawith osmotic diuretic, CT scan and referral to a neurosurgeon. • In patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, the first principals of resuscitation apply (ie, the ABCs [airway, breathing, circulation]). • Give oxygen, although this has no effect on the respiratory drive of acidosis. Diagnose by clinical history, physical signs, and elevated blood glucose. • Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy • using an insulin pump should be stopped during the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Preparing for complications***
Obtain height and weight. • Administer and monitor intravenous fluids. • Cerebral edema- Mannitol 0.5-1 g/kg infused over 30 minutes, which can be repeated after 1 hour. The usual dose of hypertonic saline is 5-10 mL/kg, again infused over 30 minutes, which can be repeated after 1 hour. (preferred) • Strictly measure input and output. • Provide catheter care if necessary. • Record blood pressure, temperature, pulse and respiration. • Record capillary refill time. • Assist in administration and monitoring of insulin therapy. • Provide supportive care to family • Inquire about culture and health beliefs and how that can be included in the plan of care • Provide relief for them to care for themselves • Keep them informed regarding any changes in patients status and orders • Connect them to the right team member Nursing Responsibilities
Dietary regarding dietary guidelines while admitted and after admission • Neurosurgeon if cerebral edema is expected • Social work/case manager to discuss current case of patient, insurance coverage, resources needed to pay for insulin pump if needed, • Resources for temporary housing. How to go through the insurance process of obtaining new housing • Reaching out to family members and friends for support • Asking about spiritual support within the community Consultations
As often as needed. • Every 15 mins to an hour for the first 12 hours especially in regards to LOC signs of ICP and respiratory arrest as this can be fatal. • V/S every 4 hours How often should the nurse reassess /reevaluate the patient’s status?
In the case of hypoglycemic shock rapid replacement of glucose with 15 grams of rapid carbohydrate such as 4 oz. of fruit juice (orange juice) or tablespoon of honey or syrup. Low-fat cheese sandwich Ham, roast beef, or turkey sandwich • Know when to test for ketones, such as when you are sick • If you use an insulin pump, check often to see that insulin is flowing through the tubing. Make sure the tube is not blocked, kinked or disconnected from the pump. • Do not skip meals or snacks and always carry a quick source of sugar especially when exercising. • Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids • Check blood sugar before each meal and at bed time and try to take medications at the same time everyday • Seek immediate medical attention if you recognize: • Trouble breathing • Decreased consciousness • Increased hunger and thirst • Dry mouth • High blood glucose • Frequent urination • Fruity breath • Nausea • Vomiting • Complains of abdominal pain Appropriate teaching for the this patient family.
Hx of symptoms upon admission • Admission v/s, subjective and objective data • Lab values • Changes in blood pressure • Changes in blood glucose • Ketones trend • Time and date of insulin initiation and administration • Changes in diet • Changes in physical abilities • Changes in LOC • Changes in breath • Changes in energy • Changes in GI • Complains of pain and steps taken to relieve pain • All interventions time date and outcome • Note time and date physician was contacted and any new orders given • Document consultations and the outcome of those consultations • Documenting that discharge teaching was provided along with resources for patient and family to take home. Appropriate documentation for this patient in an emergent situation.
Patient was d/c home on day 3 with diabetic teaching information, medication administration, when to check blood pressure and glucose, diet and when to contact the physician/hospital. • Patient stated that he was starting to get use to the finger sticks and that he is happy to be going home. • The family will be staying with the father’s brother who lives 10 miles away. They hope to find a new home in the next month or so. They also plan to find a new family pet with Ryan as soon as his health is back to being stable. Outcome
Lamb, W., Corden T., Cantell, P., Barry, E., Windle, M. (2013). Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/907111-treatment Mcfarlane, K. (2011). An overview of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Pediatric Care, 23(1), 14-19. Silverstein, J., Holzmeister, L. A., Clark, N., Anderson, B., Grey, M., Deeb, L., et al. (2005). Care Of Children And Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: A Statement Of The American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 28(1), 186-212. References