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Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN). Module 3.3. Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN). Upon completion of this module, you will be able to: Describe the features and benefits of SAN. Describe the physical and logical elements of SAN. List common SAN topologies.

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Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN)


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fibre channel storage area networks san1
Fibre Channel Storage Area Networks (SAN)

Upon completion of this module, you will be able to:

  • Describe the features and benefits of SAN.
  • Describe the physical and logical elements of SAN.
  • List common SAN topologies.
  • Compare and contrast connectivity devices.
  • Describe connectivity options of SAN.
  • Describe the I/O flow in the SAN environment.
  • List SAN management considerations.
  • Describe applications of a SAN strategy.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

in this module
In this module …

This module contains the following lessons:

  • Fibre Channel SAN Overview.
  • The Components of a SAN.
  • FC SAN Connectivity.
  • SAN Management.
  • SAN Deployment Examples.
  • Case Study and Applications of FC SAN.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson fibre channel san overview
Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Overview

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Define a FC SAN.
  • Describe the features of FC SAN based storage.
  • Describe the benefits of an FC SAN based storage strategy.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

business needs and technology challenges
Business Needs and Technology Challenges
  • Information when and where the business user needs it
  • Integrate technology infrastructure with business processes
  • Flexible, resilient architecture

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

what is a san
What is a SAN?

Array

  • Dedicated storage network
  • Organized connections among:
    • Storage
    • Communication devices
    • Systems
  • Secure
  • Robust

Switches

Server

Servers

Storage

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

evolution of fibre channel san

HUB

Evolution of Fibre Channel SAN

Servers

Switches

Switches

Servers

Storage

Storage

Servers

Interconnected

SANs

FC

Switched Fabric

SAN Islands

FC

Arbitrated Loop

Arrays

Storage

Enterprise SANs

FC Switched Fabric

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

benefits of a san
Benefits of a SAN
  • High bandwidth
    • Fibre Channel
  • SCSI extension
    • Block I/O
  • Resource Consolidation
    • Centralized storage and management
  • Scalability
    • Up to 16 million devices
  • Secure Access
    • Isolation and filtering

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson summary
Lesson Summary

Topics in this lesson included:

  • Definition of a SAN
  • Features and Benefits of SANs

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson the components of a san
Lesson: The Components of a SAN

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe the elements of a SAN.
    • Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
    • Fiber Cabling
    • Fibre Channel Switch /Hub
    • Storage Array
    • Management System

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

components of a storage area network

HBA

Components of a Storage Area Network
  • Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
  • Fiber Cabling
  • Fibre Channel Switch /Hub
  • Storage Array
  • Management System

Switches

HBA

SAN-attached Server

SAN

Arrays

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

nodes ports links

Link

Port 0

Port 0

Rx

Tx

Port n

Port n

Port 1

Port 1

Port 0

Port 0

Nodes, Ports, & Links

HBA

Node

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

host bus adapters
Host Bus Adapters
  • HBAs perform low-level interface functions automatically to minimize the impact on host processor performance

Arrays

Switches

HBA

HBA

Server

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectivity
Connectivity

Switches

Single Mode Fiber

Multimode Fiber

Host

Storage

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectors
Connectors

Node Connectors:

  • SC Duplex Connectors
  • LC Duplex Connectors

Patch panel Connectors

  • ST Simplex Connectors

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectivity devices

HBA

Connectivity Devices
  • Basis for SAN communication
    • Hubs, Switches and Directors

Arrays

Switches

Server

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

storage resources
Storage Resources
  • Storage Array
    • Provides storage consolidation and centralization
  • Features of an array
    • High Availability/Redundancy
    • Performance
    • Business Continuity
    • Multiple host connect

Arrays

Switches

HBA

Server

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

san management software
SAN Management Software
  • A suite of tools used in a SAN to manage the interface between host and storage arrays.
  • Provides integrated management of SAN environment.
  • Web based GUI or CLI

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson summary1
Lesson: Summary

Topics in this lesson included:

  • The elements of a SAN:
    • Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
    • Fiber Cabling
    • Fibre Channel Switch /Hub
    • Storage Array
    • Management System

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson fibre channel san connectivity
Lesson: Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe the Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and topologies
  • Describe Fibre Channel devices
  • Describe Fibre Channel communication protocols
  • Describe Fibre Channel login procedures

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

fibre channel san connectivity

SAN

switches

directors

IP

network

Servers & Applications

Users &

Application Clients

Storage &

Application Data

Fibre Channel SAN Connectivity
  • Core networking principles applied to storage
  • Servers are attached to 2 distinct networks
    • Back-end
    • Front-end

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

what is fibre channel
What is Fibre Channel?
  • SAN Transport Protocol
    • Integrated set of standards (ANSI)
    • Encapsulates SCSI
  • A High Speed Serial Interface
    • Allows SCSI commands to be transferred over a storage network.
  • Standard allows for multiple protocols over a single interface.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

slide23

NL Port

NL Port

NL Port

NL Port

FL Port

FL Port

HUB

HUB

NL Port

N Port

N Port

N Port

N Port

E Port

E Port

F Port

F Port

F Port

F Port

Fibre Channel Ports

Servers

Server

Node

Node

Storage

Node

Server

Switch

Node

Switch

Node

Switch

Node

Node

Array

Array

Storage

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

world wide names
World Wide Names
  • Unique 64 bit identifier.
  • Static to the port.
    • Used to physically identify a port or node within the SAN
    • Similar to a NIC MAC address
  • Additionally, each node is assigned a unique port ID (address) within the SAN
    • Used to communicate between nodes within the SAN
    • Similar in functionality to an IP address on a NIC

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

world wide names example
World Wide Names: Example

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

fibre channel logins
Fibre Channel Logins

Fabric

N Port 1

F Port

F Port

N Port 2

Process x

Process a

Process y

Process b

Process z

Process c

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

fibre channel addressing
Fibre Channel Addressing
  • Fibre Channel addresses are used for transporting frames from source ports to destination ports.
  • Address assignment methods vary with the associated topology (loop vs switch)
    • Loop – self assigning
    • Switch – centralized authority
  • Certain addresses are reserved
    • FFFFFC is Name Server
    • FFFFFE is Fabric Login

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

what is a fabric

Fabric

What is a Fabric?

Arrays

  • Virtual space used by nodes to communicate with each other once they are joined.
  • Component identifiers:
    • Domain ID
    • Worldwide Name (WWN)

Servers

Switches

Storage

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

fibre channel topologies

HUB

Fibre Channel Topologies
  • Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
    • Devices attached to a shared “loop”
    • Analogous to Token Ring
  • Switched Fabric (FC-SW)
    • All devices connected to a “Fabric Switch” – Analogous to an IP switch
    • Initiators have unique dedicated I/O paths to Targets

Clients

Storage

Arrays

Switch

Clients

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

switch versus hub comparison
Switches (FC-SW)

FC-SW architecture scalable to millions of connections.

Bandwidth per device stays constant with increased connectivity.

Bandwidth is scalable due to dedicated connections.

Higher availability than hubs.

Higher cost.

Hubs (FC-AL)

FC-AL is limited to 127 connections (substantially fewer connections can be implemented for ideal system performance).

Bandwidth per device diminishes with increased connectivity due to sharing of connections.

Low cost connection.

Switch versus Hub Comparison

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

how an arbitrated loop hub works

NL_Port #1

HBA

NL_Port #2

HBA

NL_Port #2HBA

NL_Port #1HBA

NL_Port #4

HBA

NL_Port #4HBA

Byp

Byp

Byp

Byp

How an Arbitrated Loop Hub Works

Node A

Node D

Hub_Pt

Hub_Pt

Transmit

Receive

Byp

Byp

Receive

Transmit

Node B

Node C

NL_Port #3

FA

NL_Port #3FA

Transmit

Receive

Byp

Byp

Receive

Transmit

Hub_Pt

Hub_Pt

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

how a switched fabric works
How a Switched Fabric Works

Node A

Node D

Port

Port

NL_Port #1

HBA

NL_Port #2

HBA

N_Port #2Storage Port

Transmit

Receive

N_Port #1HBA

Receive

Transmit

Node B

Node C

NL_Port #4

HBA

Transmit

Receive

NL_Port #3

FA

N_Port #3Storage Port

N_Port #4HBA

Receive

Transmit

Port

Port

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

inter switch links isls
Inter Switch Links (ISLs)

Multimode Fiber

1Gb=500m 2Gb=300m

Switch

Switch

Single-mode Fiber

up to10 km

Switch

Switch

Metro ring or point-to-point

topologies with or withoutpath protection

Switch

Switch

Router

Router

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

topology mesh fabric
Topology: Mesh Fabric
  • Can be either partial or full mesh
  • All switches are connected to each other
  • Host and Storage can be located anywhere in the fabric
  • Host and Storage can be localized to a single switch

Partial Mesh

Full Mesh

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

full mesh benefits
Full Mesh Benefits
  • Benefits
    • All storage/servers are a maximum of one ISL hop away.
    • Hosts and storage may be located anywhere in the fabric.
    • Multiple paths for data using the Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPF) algorithm.
    • Fabric management made simpler.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

topology simple core edge fabric
Can be two or three tiers

Single Core Tier

One or two Edge Tiers

In a two tier topology, storage is usually connected to the Core

Benefits

High Availability

Medium Scalability

Medium to maximum Connectivity

Topology: Simple Core-Edge Fabric

Host Tier

Storage Tier

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

core edge benefits
Core-Edge Benefits
  • Simplifies propagation of fabric data.
    • One ISL hop access to all storage in the fabric.
  • Efficient design based on node type.
    • Traffic management and predictability.
  • Easier calculation of ISL loading and traffic patterns.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson summary2
Lesson: Summary

Topics in this lesson included:

  • The Fibre Channel SAN connectivity methods and topologies
  • Fibre Channel devices
  • Fibre Channel communication protocols
  • Fibre Channel login procedures

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson san management
Lesson: SAN Management

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe SAN management functions
    • Infrastructure protection
    • Provisioning
    • Capacity Management
    • Performance Management

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

san management overview
SAN Management Overview
  • Infrastructure protection
  • Fabric Management
  • Storage Allocation
  • Capacity Tracking
  • Performance Management

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

infrastructure security

Corporate LAN

Management LAN (Private)

Infrastructure Security
  • Physical security
    • Locked data center
  • Centralized server and storage infrastructure
    • Controlled administrator access

Secure VPNor Firewall

Servers

Control Station

Switch

Switch

In-band (FC)

Out-band (IP)

Storage Arrays

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

switch fabric management tools
Switch/Fabric Management Tools
  • Vendor supplied management software
    • Embedded within the switch
    • Graphical User Interface (GUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI)
  • Functionality
    • Common functions
      • Performance monitoring
      • Discovery
      • Access Management (Zoning)
    • Different “look and feel” between vendors
  • Additional third party software add-ons
    • Enhanced functionality, such as automation

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

fabric management zoning
Fabric Management: Zoning

Servers

Arrays

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

zoning components

Zones Sets(Library)

Zones(Library)

Members(WWN’s)

Zone Set

Member

Member

Member

Member

Member

Member

Zone

Zone

Zone

Zoning Components

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

types of zoning
Types of Zoning

Servers

Domain ID = 21Port = 1

WWN 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DE:56

Array

Switches

Domain ID = 25Port = 3

WWN 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DC:40

WWN 50:06:04:82:E8:91:2B:9E

Examples:

WWN Zone 1 = 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DC:40; 50:06:04:82:E8:91:2B:9E

Port Zone 1 = 21,1; 25,3

Mixed Zone 1 = 10:00:00:00:C9:20:DE:56; Port 21/1

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

single hba zoning
Single HBA Zoning
  • Optimally, one HBA per zone.
    • Nodes can only “talk” to Storage in the same zone
  • Storage Ports may be members of more than one zone.
  • HBA ports are isolated from each other to avoid potential problems associated with the SCSI discovery process.
    • Also known as “chatter”
  • Decreases the impact of a changes in a Fabric by reducing the amount of nodes that must communicate.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

provisioning lun masking
Provisioning: LUN Masking
  • Restricts volume access to specific hosts and/or host clusters.
  • Servers can only access the volumes that they are assigned.
  • Access controlled in the storage and not in the fabric
    • Makes distributed administration secure
  • Tools to manage masking
    • GUI
    • Command Line

Switch

Array

Servers

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

capacity management
Capacity Management
  • Tracking and managing assets
    • Number of ports assigned
    • Storage allocated
  • Utilization profile
    • Indicates resource utilization over time
    • Allows for forecasting
  • SAN management software provides the tools
    • Inventory databases
    • Report writers

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

performance management
Performance Management
  • What is it?
    • Capturing metrics and monitoring trends
    • Proactively or Reactively responding
    • Planning for future growth
  • Areas and functions
    • Host, Fabric and Storage Performance
    • Building baselines for the environment

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson summary3
Lesson: Summary
  • Topics in this lesson included:
    • Infrastructure protection
    • Provisioning
    • Capacity Management
    • Performance Management

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson san deployment examples
Lesson: SAN Deployment Examples

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe common SAN deployment considerations
  • Explain SAN deployment examples
  • Describe SAN Challenges

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

when should a san be used
When Should a SAN be Used?
  • SANs are optimized for high bandwidth block level I/O
  • Suited for the demands of real time applications
    • Databases: OLTP (online transaction processing)
    • Video streaming
  • Any applications with high transaction rate and high data volatility
    • Stringent requirements on I/O latency and throughput
  • Used to consolidate heterogeneous storage environments
    • Physical consolidation
    • Logical consolidation

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

consolidation example das challenge
Consolidation Example: DAS Challenge

Servers

Servers

Servers

Storage

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

consolidation example san solution
Consolidation Example: SAN Solution

Servers

Servers

Servers

Array

Switch

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectivity example challenge
Connectivity Example: Challenge

Server

Server

Switches

Array

Array

Server

Server

Server

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectivity example solution
Connectivity Example: Solution

Server

Server

Switches

Server

Server

Server

Array

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

fc san challenges
FC SAN Challenges
  • Infrastructure
    • New, separate networks are required.
  • Skill-sets
    • As a relatively new technology, FC SAN administrative skills need to be cultivated.
  • Cost
    • Large investments are required for effective implementation.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

lesson summary4
Lesson: Summary

Topics in this lesson included:

  • Common SAN deployment considerations.
  • SAN Implementation Scenarios
    • Consolidation
    • Connectivity
  • SAN Challenges

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

module summary
Module Summary

Topics in this module included:

  • The features and benefits of SAN.
  • The physical and logical elements of SAN.
  • The common SAN topologies.
  • Comparison of SAN connectivity devices.
  • The connectivity options of SAN.
  • The I/O flow in the SAN environment.
  • SAN management considerations.
  • Applications of a SAN strategy.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

check your knowledge

Check Your Knowledge
  • Name three key features of a SAN implementation.
  • What is a Switch?
  • Describe how a SAN can be connected?
  • What is one common SAN topology?
  • What are two management considerations for a SAN environment?
  • What is a Fabric?
  • What is a Core-Edge Fabric?

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

apply your knowledge
Apply Your Knowledge

Connectrix™ Family of

SAN Switches and Directors

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

apply your knowledge1
Apply Your Knowledge…

Upon completion of this topic, you will be able to:

  • Describe EMC’s product implementation of the Connectrix™ Family of SAN Switches and Directors.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

the connectrix family

MDS-9509

ED-140M

AP-7420B

MDS-9506

MP-2640M

DS-4700M

DS-4400M

The Connectrix Family
  • High-speed Fibre Channel connectivity- 1 to 10 gigabits per second
  • Highly resilient switching technology, and
  • options for IP storage networking.
  • configure to adapt to any business need

ED-10000M

ED-48000B

MP-1620M

MDS-9216i/A

MDS-9140

DS-4100B

MDS-9120

DS-220B

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

switches versus directors
Connectrix Switches

High availability through redundant deployment

Redundant fans and power supplies

Departmental deployment or part of Data Center deployment

Small to medium fabrics

Multi-protocol possibilities

Connectrix Directors

“Redundant everything” provides optimal serviceability and highest availability

Data center deployment

Maximum scalability

Maximum performance

Large fabrics

Multi-protocol

Switches versus Directors

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectrix switch ds 220b
Connectrix Switch - DS-220B
  • Provides eight, 12, or 16 ports
    • Auto-detecting 1, 2, and 4 Gb/s Fibre Channel ports
    • Single, fixed power supply
    • Field-replaceable optics
    • Redundant cooling
  • Simplified setup—no previous SAN experience needed
    • Eliminates the need for advanced skills to manage IP addressing or Zoning

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectrix director mds 9509

MDS-9509

Connectrix Director – MDS 9509
  • Multi-transport switch—Fibre Channel, FICON, iSCSI, FCIP
    • 16 to 224 Fibre Channel ports
    • 4–56 Gigabit Ethernet ports for iSCSI or FCIP
    • Non-blocking fabric
    • 1 / 2 Gb/s auto-sensing ports
  • All components are fully redundant

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

connectrix management interfaces
Connectrix Management Interfaces

MDS-Series

Fabric Manager

M-Series

Web Server

B-Series

Web Tools

Storage Area Networks (SAN)

module summary1
Module Summary

The Connectrix Family of Switches and Directors;

  • Has three product sets:
    • Connectrix B-Series
    • Connectrix MDS 9000 Series
    • Connectrix M-Series
  • Provides highly available access to storage.
  • Connects a wide range of host and storage technologies.

Storage Area Networks (SAN)