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The degree of specialization varies according to the type of pragmatic function that tourism discourse is developing each time:

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  1. The degree of specialization varies according to the type of pragmatic function that tourism discourse is developing each time: • From a promotional point of view, tourism discourse will be persuasive rather than specialized, exploiting argumentation and rhetorical devices (and rhetorical strategies to such an extent as to influence personal choices in the selection of a holiday) • Tourism as a specialized discourse will reflect “the specialist use of language in contexts which are typical of a specialized community stretching across the academic, the professional, the technical and the occupational areas of knowledge and practice (Gotti, 24)

  2. Calvi (2005, 23) defines the language of Tourism as “un linguaggio dalla fisionomia sfuggente”, which does not have a well-defined content and clear functional boundaries as it is influenced by a vast range of disciplines and encompasses different communicative functions ( informative, persuasive, argumentative, vocative)

  3. GENRE(S) Genre analysis pays special attention to the relationship between different texts that are connected with each other and therefore influence each other “Genres are no longer seen as single – and perhaps separable – communicative resources but as forming complex networks of various kinds” (Swales, 2004,2)

  4. Since promotion of the same product to different customers can be successful if presented in adequate and convincing ways, attention has recently been concentrating on the linguistic strategies employed in the tourism industry The investigation on the linguistic features of tourism industry has revealed that tourism discourse, in its different genres, has certain aspects which make it similar to specialized discourse, such as a particular exploitation of the lexis, syntax, and specific textual characteristics

  5. The rapid spread of mass tourism has favoured the use of English as a lingua franca all over the world. This is due to historical, political and economic factors but the potentialities offered by the English Language in tourism discourse derive from the balance obtained in its register, which wisely combineseveryday language and specialized elements.

  6. Metaphor • A Figure of Speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance as in “A mighty fortress is our God” • Something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else, an emblem, a symbol Origin: Latin metaphora; Greek metaphorà, “ a transfer”; "a carrying over" (from metapherein: "transfer,carry over);  from ”meta” : "over, across" +  “pherein” : "to carry, bear" 

  7. METAPHORIZATION Is the most widely-exploited strategy used to derive new and specialized meanings from general language. Metaphors are essential because they say concisely what in other words would need long elaborate descriptions or difficult paraphrases Examples: “A fly-drive package to escape from our stressful society to a real paradise” “Enjoy the heart of Africa and its wild beat” “Taste the flavour of New York night life”

  8. The advantages of using metaphors are : • terminological transparency (semantic association with a clearly-codified concept, i.e. peace, love, joy) • Terminological conciseness (the term immediately reflect information to the addresse (twin room) • terminological depiction by exploiting images from the real world to represent concepts difficult to explain

  9. Metaphors help the author to create effective specialized texts: the greater the effectiveness, the greater the persuasion Example: “The West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island is the hottest extreme kayaking destination on the planet”

  10. Shortened Similes When two terms have similar semantic values linked by an equivalence Example: “Ecotourism is a sustainable form of natural resource-based Tourism” (Fennel 1999, 88) This rethorical strategy is employed for stylistic reasons as it adds connotative features to specialized terms

  11. Metaphorical interaction Is created between two terms, where they both confer their own qualities to the other term

  12. Example 1: “Tourism is Business” This expression associates the concepts of free time activities and commerce and, by assigning to tourism the characteristics of business and marketing, reveals what tourism represents for the specialist Example 2: “Ecotourism is travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas” The metaphorical interaction between “ecotourism” and “travel” pairs two partially different semantic fields: that of sustainable actions in tourism and that of travelling. Ecotourism involves travelling and, at the same time, travelling is (also) a form of Ecotourism.

  13. Elliptic similes They are used when specialized discourse undergoes a process of popularization. They tend to omit elements of the sentence by achieving greater pragmatic effect. Examples: “Sri-Lanka is the Pearl of the Orient” “Skies are so clear that they feel like Michelangelo’s masterpiece”

  14. PARADOXES AND PUNS Paradoxes, or exaggerations, and puns are used especially in slogans in order to express various ideas. Not all of them are relevant toi the context but rather to the persuasive component of the communication EXAMPLES: • Look at Naples and Die! • Enjoy the best sea in the world! • The most amazing adventure you can dream of. • Some like it Haute (slogan for United Airlines)

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