Statistics

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# Statistics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Statistics. Introductory class. Statistics. Review Web page and syllabus Questions and discussion Understand how statistics relates to scientific method and epistemology Realize the usefulness of statistics in the search for truth. Learning Outcomes (From syllabus).

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Statistics' - slone

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Presentation Transcript

### Statistics

Introductory class

Statistics
• Review Web page and syllabus
• Questions and discussion
• Understand how statistics relates to scientific method and epistemology
• Realize the usefulness of statistics in the search for truth
Learning Outcomes (From syllabus)
• Convert a research problem to numerical form
• Describe the numerical data with statistics
• Represent data with graphs
• Test differences between group means
• Compare variables with correlation
• Predict changes with regression
Learning Outcomes...
• Use spreadsheet statistical functions for data analysis
• Use SPSS for research applications
Chapter One
• Understand how statistics relates to scientific method and epistemology. Realize the usefulness of statistics in the search for truth.
• Define and identify these terms:
• population, sample, variable, independent variable, dependent variable, extraneous variable, confounding variable, data, statistic, parameter, observational study, true experiment, descriptive, inferential, correlational, parameter estimation, random sampling
• Load and edit data in Microsoft Excel
Methods of Knowing (Epistemology)
• Authority
• Rationalism
• Empiricism
• Intuition vs. insight
• Scientific Method
• In which of these methods do statistics apply?
Terminology: The jargon of statistical evidence
• Population:Sample :: Descriptive:Inferential
• Variables and constants
• grouping variable: experimental or quasi-experimental/correlational?
• Independent variable: I cause
• Dependent variable: De effect
• extraneous variable: EXTRA variables beyond IV and DV
• confounding variable: mixed up with IV
• participant variables
• environmental variables
Data
• Data, statistics, and parameters
• Methods of data collection:
• Observational vs. experimental
• Manipulation and control
• The Grape Kool-Aid Study
• Descriptive, inferential, correlational
• The Grape Kool-Aid Study again
• Nonequivalent groups
• Pre-post studies
• Parameter estimation
• Random sampling
• Sampling error
Assessment exercise
• Stoveken (2008) wants to see if the mood someone is in while learning a list of words influences her later recall of those words.
• She randomly selects 20 first year students from Houghton College, and randomly assigns them to two groups.
• One group watches a depressing movie, the other a comedy.
Assessment...
• Then, both groups are given a list of 30 words to memorize.
• Two days later they are tested for recall.
• The depressing-movie group recalled an average of 24 words.
• The comedy-movie group recalled an average of 13 words.
Questions
• 1. What is the grouping variable?
• 2. Is it an independent variable?
• 3. What is the dependent variable?
• 4. What is the sample?
• 5. What is the population?
• 6. Identify the relevant data.
• 7. Identify a statistic.