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Managers and Change

Managers and Change

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Managers and Change

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  1. Managers and Change

  2. Overview • Forces for change • Two views of the change process • Employee resistance to change Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  3. Quick Write Think of an example of major change that you have seen introduced in your school or community or an organization you belong to. How did people respond to the change? Was it a happy experience? Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  4. Forces for Change Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  5. A Definition of Change Change is an alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, technology, or people Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  6. What Managers Can Change • Altering Structure • Altering Technology • Altering People Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  7. External Forces for Change • Marketplace Competition • Government Regulation • Technology • Shifts in Labor Markets • Economic Changes Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  8. Internal Forces for Change • Management Change in Strategy • Restructure to Create Opportunities • Workforce Changes • Age • Education • Gender • Nationality Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  9. A Manager as a Change Agent • Changes within an organization need a catalyst—something or, often, someone who makes things happen • A change agent is a person who initiates and takes responsibility for managing a change in an organization • Any manager can be a change agent with the organization Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  10. Other Change Agents • A nonmanager can sometimes be a change agent, especially if he or she has some sort of specialized role within the organization • Sometimes a company brings in an outside consultant as a change agent • Outsiders can often provide an objectivity that insiders lack • Insiders, on the other hand, may understand organizational tradition and culture better, and that can make them more effective as change agents Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  11. Two Views of the Change Process Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com, Thinkstock Images

  12. Calm Waters Metaphor The “calm waters” metaphor compares the organization to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  13. White-Water Rapids Metaphor The “white-water rapids” metaphor compares the organization to a small raft navigating a raging river Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Thinkstocck Images

  14. The Calm-Waters Metaphor Lewin's Three-Step Model • Unfreezing the Status Quo • Increase driving forces • Decrease restraining forces • Making the Change • Refreezing to Make Change Permanent Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  15. White-Water Rapids Metaphor What would happen if . . . . • You attend a school where the courses vary in length – some last all semester, but some end abruptly after just a few weeks, and some stretch on into the summer • You never know how long a class session will last – sometimes it’s 20 minutes, and other times it’s an hour and a half, so you’re late for your other classes or you may miss your car-pool ride home • And you never know when there will be an exam • You must be ready every day, on a moment’s notice Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  16. What General Motors Faces • Changing Consumer Tastes • Changing Government Regulations • New Competitive Manufacturers Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Taken from Regulations.gov

  17. Changing Industries • Automobile manufacturing • Oil exploration • Banking • Publishing • Telecommunications • Airlines Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  18. How Entrepreneurs Handle Change • Wear many hats within the venture he or she has launched – the change agent hat is one of the most important • Often is the one to recognize the need for change and to implement the change • Serve as coach and cheerleader for the rest of the team to keep them engaged and excited rather than discouraged or withdrawn • Guides the process, answers questions, makes suggestions, gets needed resources, facilitates conflict, and does whatever else is necessary to implement the change Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  19. Optional ExerciseForces for Change Your JROTC Unit would like to attend a regional Air Force JROTC conference that will take place on a Thursday and Friday during the upcoming school year. How will you increase the driving forces and decrease the restraining forces in order to change your normal practice (status quo) and attend this conference? Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  20. Employee Resistance to Change Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  21. Why People Resist Change • Uncertainty of Experience or Outcomes • Concern Over Personal Loss • Belief That Change Is Not In The Best Interest of the Organization Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Comstock Images

  22. Techniques for Reducing Resistance • Communication and Education • Facilitation and Support • Negotiation and Bargaining Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

  23. Optional ExerciseThe Photocopy Machine The photocopy machine broke down in your office this morning and has only just been repaired. It is now 4:00 p.m. and by 8:30 a.m. tomorrow, 150 folders have to be filled with 20 pages of material for a conference. It is your job as manager to tell your subordinate that he or she must stay late and do all the photocopying. You happen to know that your subordinate has tickets for a popular concert tonight, for which he or she stood in line for hours and has been looking forward to for weeks. Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  24. The Photocopy Machine Form groups of four. One person in the group will play the role of the manager and someone else in the group will play the subordinate. The players have five to ten minutes to role play the interaction between the manager and the subordinate regarding the Photocopy Machine. After the role play is over have the remaining two students in the groups of four explain what they observed in the role play interaction Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  25. Review • Change isan alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, technology, or people • External forces that create a need to change include marketplace competition, government regulation, technology, shifts in labor markets, and economic changes • Internal forces that create a need to change include a change in strategy by top management, the need to create opportunities for workers in the organization, and changes in the age, education, gender, or nationality of the workforce Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  26. Review • Changes within an organization need a catalyst—something or, often, someone who makes things happen • A change agent is a person who initiates and takes responsibility for managing a change in an organization • The “calm waters” metaphor of change compares the organization to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm • The “white-water rapids” metaphor of change compares the organization to a small raft navigating a raging river Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  27. Review • A three-step model for handling change in calm waters includes unfreezing the status quo (“the way things are now”), making the change, and then refreezing to make the changes permanent • Unfreezing the status quo involves increasing the driving forces and decreasing the restraining forces for change • Managers, including entrepreneurs who navigate white-water rapids type change guide the process, answer questions, make suggestions, secure needed resources, facilitate conflict, and do whatever else is necessary to implement the rapid and recurrent change Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  28. Review • People tend to resist change because of the uncertainty of outcomes, concern over personal loss, or the belief that change is not in the organization’s best interest • Techniques for reducing resistance to organizational change include education and communication, facilitation and support, and negotiation • Some techniques for responding to resistance, such as twisting and distorting facts or threatening people, can be used, but are not productive Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  29. Summary • Forces for change • Two views of the change process • Employee resistance to change Chapter 6 Lesson 1

  30. What’s Next… Change and the Organization Chapter 6 Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com