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Washington and the Presidency - leadership style / personality Judiciary Act of 1789 passed - structure B of R ratified Tariff 5% passed Cabinet created. * What events helped establish our new gov’t?. 1. 3. 13. The first cabinet. Thomas Jefferson- Secy. of State

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what events helped establish our new gov t
Washington and the Presidency

- leadership style / personality

Judiciary Act of 1789 passed

- structure

B of R ratified

Tariff 5% passed

Cabinet created

* What events helped establish our new gov’t?




the first cabinet
The first cabinet
  • Thomas Jefferson- Secy. of State
  • Alexander Hamilton- Secy. of the Treasury
  • Henry Knox- Secy. of War
  • Edmund Randolph – Attorney General
why how did the 2 party system develop
* Why/How did the 2 party system develop
  • Ratification
  • Jefferson vs. Hamilton:


Hamilton’s Economic plan

describe hamilton s economic plan
pg 184-5

Hamilton’s Economic Plan:

create BUS; set a Tariff; set an excise tax

pay off foreign debt ($12m)

issue new Bonds to pay off old ($44m)

honor Bonds at “face value”

Federal Gov’t assumes state debts ($25m)

DC Compromise

Whiskey Rebellion

(not Shay’s Rebellion)

*Describe Hamilton’s Economic Plan
describe the influence of the hamilton jefferson conflict
Describe the influence of the Hamilton – Jefferson conflict
  • P185, 191
  • Views of America & Democracy

“Hamiltonian ” and “Jeffersonian ”

  • “the BUS debate”:

the “E L A S T I C C L A U S E”

Strict or Loose Interpretation

in what framework did american foreign policy develop gw ja
GB war FR

Genét Affair

FR Rev

Trade Balance $


“XYZ” Affair

In what framework did American foreign policy develop?GW  JA


what caused conflict in the american frontier the ohio valley gb and n a s
Native Americans

Little Turtle / Fallen Timbers

Pinckney Treaty


Jay’s Treaty

British in the Ohio Valley

*What caused conflict in the American frontier?The Ohio ValleyGB and N. A.’s
id nullification
ID Nullification
  • Alien & Sedition Acts (1798)

- deport / expel dangerous aliens

- speak out against or criticize the gov’t > fine / imprisonment

- newspapers

  • Naturalization Act

- changed wait period from 5 to 14 years

results in :

  • VA and KY Resolutions

- Madison and Jefferson

- a state can nullify a federal law

- a state can secede if it chooses

**** State’s Rights*****

what was the revolution of 1800
* What was “The Revolution Of 1800”?
  • Peaceful change of gov’t

-election goes to the HoR

- Hamilton / Burr

  • Policy changed
id important events of tj s presidency
*ID important events of TJ’s presidency
  • Attack on Federalists

-repealed Whiskey Tax; A & S Acts expired

-replaced Federalists with D-R’s

  • LA Purchase -1803

- doubles USA and TJ changes

  • Embargo Act of 1807 (TJ)
  • Non Intercourse Act 1809 (Madison)
  • Marbury v Madison

- the Judiciary act of 1801 created new federal courts, therefore more federal judges for Adams to appoint

- the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the SC the power to issue a writ of mandamus (an order) (p 206)

marbury v madison
Marbury v. Madison
  • The Marshall court ruled that, although Marbury deserved his commission, the court could not order that it be delivered because Congress could not give a power to the Supreme Court which the Constitution did not grant.
    • This was a landmark decision because it was the first time that the court claimed for itself the right of judicial review, the right to determine the constitutionality of an act of Congress. CJJohn Marshall: - used Judicial Review for the first time to rule against Marbury
causes for the war of 1812
Causes for The War of 1812


  • loss of federalist political power (Pres. / Congress)
  • GB ‘s seizure of US merchant ships and cargo
  • GB’s Impressment of US sailors
  • Anti-British sentiment in US public opinion

- loss of maritime jobs and recession due to war and TJ’s policies

  • GB -> still in the Ohio Valley
  • US Ambition: “War Hawks”

- get Canada, Florida

**** Hartford Convention

(nullify and secede)

id results of the war of 1812
* ID Results of the War of 1812


  • Treaty of Ghent 1814

* no real territorial advantage

* we avoid defeat again

  • Encouraged isolationism / neutrality
  • Increased migration West
  • Encouraged growth of American Industry (textiles)
  • End of the Federalist Party
  • Rise of American Nationalism
  • Northern border set
  • Oregon shared with GB
  • Great Lakes – joint occupation with GB

map – p204

relate sectionalism to nationalism
Relate Sectionalism to Nationalism


  • Sectionalism (Regionalism)

- distinctive parts of a unit

- ID America’s regions : N,S,W

  • Nationalism

- pride in one’s country

  • Can both concepts develop in the same country, at the same time?


id results of the war of 18121
* ID Results of the War of 1812


  • Treaty of Ghent 1814

* no real territorial advantage

* we avoid defeat again

  • Encouraged isolationism
  • Increased migration West
  • Encouraged growth of American Industry
  • End of the Federalist Party
  • Rise of American Nationalism
  • Northern border set
  • Oregon shared
  • Great Lakes – joint occupation

map – p204

describe the american economy 1810 1850
Describe the American Economy 1810 - 1850
  • Revolutions in :

production – an Industrial Revolution (see visual)

machine production encourages the use of interchangeable parts,

mass production, and job specialization



- new technology : the cotton gin (Eli Whitney) and the steam engine (Robert Fulton), the Mechanical Reaper (Cyrus McCormick) and Textile Mills (Samuel Slater)

Over time, the “Factory System” replaces the “Domestic System”

king cotton
“King Cotton”
  • The Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney

- see chart

describe the influence of western expansion
Describe the influence of western expansion
  • Land – people – territories formed
  • Resources increase
  • Territories b/c States

-more people, more voters, more electoral votes (2+X)

  • N. A. policy is needed
  • Sectionalism

- N, S, W

- economic, cultural differences

  • Slavery issue

p221,p223 –new states (Missouri)

what was the american system
What was “The American System”?
  • Need for commerce to develop to encourage America’s self-sufficiency ( to support Neutrality / Isolationism trend)
  • Bring the 3 regions (sections) together economically

Henry Clay (KY):

  • Approve a second Nat’l Bank
  • Support a Tariff (1816)
  • Approve National funding for internal improvements in S and W

-roads and canals…

and…..rr lines

7 2 our first steps in fp continued
7.2 Our first steps in FP-.continued
  • GB – FR
  • Neutrality
  • The Monroe Doctrine 1823

- neutrality for independent N / S America

- no intervention or colonization by european countries

( no “or else”yet)

  • Establishing Borders

- Adams-Onis 1819

-Rush-Bagot 1817 p221

-Convention of 1818

7 2 how did the sc reinforce federal supremacy
7.2 How did the SC reinforce Federal supremacy?
  • Marbury v. Madison 1803
  • McCulloch v. Md. 1819
  • Gibbons v. Ogden 1824
  • Fletcher v. Peck 1819
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819

* The Marshall Court

describe the missouri compromise of 1820
Describe the Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • Why did it happen?
  • Who was responsible?
  • What were the conditions?
  • What were the results?

map –p223

describe the era of good feelings 1800 1824
Describe the “Era of Good Feelings”(1800) -1824
  • The Federalist party dies out…
  • 1 Party remains:

-Anti-Feds ; Dem-Rep’s ; Rep’s ;………

  • TJ (8), Madison (8), Monroe (8), JQ Adams (4)


- election opponents were from different regions of the country; but from the same party

……. The National Republicans

  • The “National Republicans” adopt some federalist policies that support national growth and power – (BUS, tariffs)
7 3 describe the elections of 1824 and 1828
7.3 Describe the elections of 1824 and 1828
  • 1824 – “ The Corrupt Bargain”

- the popular vote and Henry Clay

- AJ begins immediately to win in 1828

  • The end of “The Era of Good Feelings”

*party politics returns

* the birth of the Democratic Party

* “Jacksonian Democracy” takes shape in AJ’s image

  • 1828 – Jackson wins
describe jacksonian democracy
Describe “Jacksonian Democracy”
  • Democracy for all….
  • New groups emerge with new expectations
  • US is a blend of industrial / commercial and agriculture cultures
  • Social and Economic as well as Political Equality (… for who?... ) – Egalitarian (ch. 8)
  • Features at the state level:

new states with new state constitutions that bring reforms (like voting qualifications)

  • Features at the national level:

new leaders (nat’l and state)

“the spoils system” --Patronage

aj s n a policies
AJ’s N.A. Policies
  • Indian Removal Act 1830

-federal $$ for treaty negotiation -forced

-Oklahoma territory

  • Worchester v. Ga. 1832

- SC affirms independent rights of the Cherokees

-AJ ignores SC ruling

  • The “Trail of Tears” 1838

-VanBuren completes the policy

-forced removal of Cherokee

7 4 describe the nullification crisis
7.4 Describe the Nullification Crisis
  • The Tariff of 1828

- the “Tariff of Abominations”

- John Calhoun, VP v. AJ --- issue of “STATES RIGHTS”

* “toast duel”

* Senate debate –Daniel Webster (Ma) v. Robert Hayne (SC)

- SC Ordinance of Nullification – 1832 (like Va and KY resolutions)

- Tariff Act - 1832

- Clay compromises again on tariff and avoids a showdown

- Force Act - 1833

describe aj s fight against the usb
Describe AJ’s fight against the USB
  • BUS battle / election of 1832

-Clay and Webster try to trap AJ and push the BUS renewal early and make him veto it (not up for renewal until 1836) – he did… and..

-backfires –AJ winsre-election

–AJ campaigned against BUS and Nicholas Biddle ---and since he won; he decided to act to destroy the BUS – b/c the people have spoken thru his election ----they don’t want the BUS

  • Bank Crisis

-AJ’s PET BANKS and Biddle’s loan recall results in

economic recession which Van Buren inherits along with Indian removal

king andrew or old hickory which best fits aj
“King Andrew” or “Old Hickory”Which best fits AJ ?
  • AJ :State or National Power ??

? --States Rights or strong central gov’t

indian removal


the BUS

the issue for AJ was the use of presidential power (Inherent) – the president had to represent the people

  • The culture of Jacksonian Democracy expands participation
  • The Whig Party develops….

- In opposition to AJ’s policies and use of power

- support Protective Tariffs and a nat’l banking system

- WH Harrison / Tyler – Whig Presidents

how do each of these developments illustrate growing american nationalism
How do each of these developments illustrate growing American nationalism ?
  • A Tariff
  • connecting the states ( roads, canals, rr)
  • our borders
  • the 2nd US bank
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • SC rulings
  • The end of the Federalists
  • Era of “good feelings” -1 party
  • Rise of the Democratic Party