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The Cold War Expands. Angela Brown Chapter 16 Section 3. http://www.ambrosevideo.com/resources/docs/200.JPG. The Korean War. 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone. Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948-1949.

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the cold war expands

The Cold War Expands

Angela Brown

Chapter 16 Section 3

the korean war
The Korean War
  • 1945 Allies divide Korea into Soviet-Occupied northern zone and an American – Occupied Southern Zone.
  • Occupying forces withdrew from both zones in 1948-1949.

http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/fi/0000019f.jpg

korean war
Korean War
  • June 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops streamed across the 38th parallel, the latitude dividing the two nations, aiming to reunite Korea by Force.
  • The USSR was boycotting the Security Council protesting the exclusion of Communist China, the UN was able to act to defend South Korea.
today
Today

http://www.landofthemorningstorm.com/Pictures/38th.jpg

douglas macarthur
Douglas MacArthur
  • Hero of two World Wars – strong anti-communist Truman’s choice to lead UN forces in Korea
  • Graduated from U.S. military academy at West Point in 1903

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos

/images/h62000/h62439.jpg

macarthur
MacArthur
  • Cited 7 times for bravery in WWI and by 1918 at age 38 he attained rank of general.
  • 1930 Army Chief of Staff
  • WWII – Commander of American forces in Asia
  • Virtual dictator of Japan during postwar – responsible for establishing Western Democracy – creating new democratic constitution
macarthur1
MacArthur
  • Less successful in implementing democracy in South Korea – supported South Korean President Syngman Rhee
  • Hero to troops and American Public
  • Disliked as overly ambitious by political leaders
macarthur2
MacArthur
  • MacArthur had little respect for both Roosevelt and Truman.
  • He viewed them as soft on communism.
  • He had contempt for anyone with authority over him; it undermined his otherwise brilliant career.
the korean war1
The Korean War
  • Excellent military strategist, MacArthur, developed a bold plan to drive the invaders from South Korea.
  • South Korea overtaken in just a few weeks – except small part near port city of Pusan.
  • Guessed that swift advance had left supply lines stretched thin.
  • Sept 1950 attacked enemy supply lines from behind and sent forces to defend Pusan.
korean war1
Korean War
  • His strategy worked . The North Koreans fled back across 38th Parallel.
  • UN troops pursued them Northward and began boasting of reuniting Korea under South Korean government.
  • Chinese joined North Koreans and pushed UN forces back into South Korea; a stalemate developed.
slide13
MacArthur favored opening a second front by bringing Chinese opposition from Taiwan under Jiang Jieshi to fight communist Chinese.
  • Truman opposed; he feared widespread war in Asia.
macarthur fired
MacArthur Fired
  • MacArthur sent letter to House minority leader Joseph Marlin in March 1951 attacking the President’s policy.
  • Martin made letter public; on April 11 Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination.
  • The struggle dragged on for two more years.
truce
Truce?
  • 1953 truce signed; left Korea divided by the 38th parallel as before.
  • Americans wondered why 55,000 soldiers had been killed and 103,000 wounded for limited results.
  • Was the U.S. serious about stopping communism?
the cold war in the 1950s
The Cold War in the 1950s
  • 1953 Eisenhower succeeded Truman.
  • New phase of Cold War policy
  • Sec of State John Foster Dulles called for a policy to roll back communism.
  • Eisenhower recognized risk of confronting Soviets did not intervene in revolts in Eastern Germany, Poland and Hungary in 1956.
  • Policy of containment continued.
dwight d eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/aa/eisenhower/aa_eisenhower_subj_e.jpg

southeast asia
Southeast Asia
  • July 1953 fulfilled campaign promise to end Korean War – aided by death of Stalin in March.
  • Conflict developed in Vietnam – French colony
  • 1945 Ho Chi Minh, head of Vietnamese Communist Party declared independence.
ho chi minh
Ho Chi Minh

http://www.facade.com/celebrity/photo/Ho_Chi_Minh.jpg

domino theory
Domino theory
  • France sent troops to reassert authority = war
  • Eisenhower believed in Domino theory
  • If one country fell to communists its neighbors would soon follow.
  • By 1954 U.S. providing military aid to support France in Vietnam.
slide21
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/vietnam_pol92.jpg

http://dsf.chesco.org/heroes/images/s_vietnam_map.gif

vietnam
Vietnam
  • May 1954, major defeat = France withdrew forces
  • International conference divided Vietnam like Korea.
  • U.S. provided aid to South Vietnam but resisted greater involvement.
the middle east
The Middle East
  • British controlled Palestine – region on Med. Coast and biblical home of Jewish people
  • 1930s many Jews sought safety in Palestine – called for a Jewish state
  • 1947 British turned over to UN – created two states one Jewish and one Arab
palestine
Palestine

http://www.shuruq.com/Palestine_files/palestine.jpg

israel iran
Israel - Iran
  • May 1948 Jews in Palestine proclaimed new nation of Israel.
  • Arab nations opposed – backed by Soviets
  • U.S. worked to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from falling to Soviets.
  • 1952 nationalist leader gained control in Iran
  • U.S. (CIA) organized overthrow – returned power to pro-American Shah of Iran
israel
Israel

http://ec.europa.eu/comm/external_relations/israel/images/acp_israel_w600.gif

suez crisis
Suez Crisis
  • Suez Crisis in 1956 – Egypt’s ruler, Nasser, sought Soviet support
  • U.S./GB stopped aid.
  • Nasser seized the Suez Canal a vital waterway through Egypt allowing Middle East oil to reach Europe.
  • 1956 British and French attack Egypt.
  • Eisenhower persuaded NATO allies to withdraw from Egypt.
suez canal
Suez Canal

http://www.yachtaragorn.com/maps/large/DjiboutitoSuezCanal.jpg

eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower Doctrine
  • 1957 announced Eisenhower Doctrine
  • The U.S. would use force to safeguard independent countries in Middle East requesting aid against aggression.
  • Used Doctrine in 1958 to put down revolt against Lebanese government.
latin america
Latin America
  • 1947 Rio Pact – a regional defense alliance with 18 other nations in the Western Hemisphere.
  • 1948 formed organization of American States (OAS) to increase cooperation among nations of Hemisphere.
latin america1
Latin America
  • 1954 CIA helped overthrow government of Guatemala.
  • Leaders were sympathetic to radical causes.
  • Restored property of United Fruit company seized by Guatemalan government from American corporation.
guatemala
Guatemala

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/mapimages/central_america/guatemala/guatemala.gif

slide33
Cuba
  • 1958 Fidel Castro overthrew corrupt Cuban dictator Batista. (ties to U.S. organized crime)
  • Eisenhower would not support Castro; CIA reported infiltration of movement by communist.
  • Castro seized U.S. property in Cuba; Eisenhower cut diplomatic ties and halted exports to Island.
  • Castro turned to Soviets for economic and military aid.
leadership change
Leadership Change

http://alocubano.com/batista8.gif

http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/forum/castro.jpg

republic of cuba
Republic of Cuba

http://www.m-w.com/maps/images/maps/cuba_map.gif

the arms race
The Arms Race
  • Arms Race – struggle to gain weapons superiority The Growth of Nuclear Arsenals
  • 1953 one year after U.S test of thermonuclear device, Soviets tested hydrogen device.
  • 1953 Eisenhower announced atoms for Peace Plan at UN.
first hydrogen test
First Hydrogen Test
  • World’s nations work together under UN supervision to find peaceful uses for nuclear technology; Soviets refused to participate.
  • Eisenhower stepped up American weapons development program.
  • First hydrogen test in March 1954; 750 times more powerful than bomb dropped on Nagaski.
results
Results
  • Japanese fisherman 90 miles away radiation burns-Island 200 miles away evacuated
  • Test revealed nuclear war threatened entire world with radioactive contamination.

http://www.gensuikin.org/panel/13.jpg

brinkmanship
Brinkmanship
  • 1956 Secretary of State Dulles stated U.S. prepared to risk war to protect national interest.
  • Brinkmanship – ability to get to verge without getting into war
cold war in the skies
Cold War in the Skies
  • U.S. Airforce to carry hydrogen bombs to targets; Soviets could not match strength.
  • Developed ICBM’s – long-range rockets known as intercontinental ballistic missiles as primary delivery system
  • U.S worked to develop ICBM’s lagged behind Soviet’s in missile development due to dependence on conventional air power.
icbm launch
ICBM launch

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled.jpg/300px-

Atlas-icbm-erector-scaled.jpg

sputnik
Sputnik
  • Technological gap startling in 1957; Soviets used one of rockets to launch Sputnik – first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.
  • Americans mortified – rocket could carry hydrogen bomb to U.S.
  • U.S. satellite rushed to launch before ready; crashed.
sputnik1
Sputnik

http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/spacecraft/russia/r7-sputnik.jpg

u 2 incident
U-2 incident
  • U-2 incident – Soviets shot down U.S. spy plane over Soviet Union with guided missile.
  • It flew 15 miles high; we assumed it was immune to attack.

http://www.lswilson.ca/u2-3.jpg

gary powers
Gary Powers

http://www.nndb.com/people/105/000057931/powers-crop.jpg

http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/lae/images/LE284L9.gif

sentence
Sentence
  • Francis Gary Powers: ImprisonedPowers spent almost 21 months in prison in the Soviet Union.
  • During that time, he openly kept a diary of his daily activities.
  • In November 1960 he began secretly writing a journal, which opens with a detailed recounting of the downing of his U-2.
  • When released, Powers hid the diary and journal in a rug he had embroidered while in prison and carried them out of the Soviet Union.

http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/lae/script/ss_flyers.htm

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