Cell structure and composition
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Cell Structure and Composition. Prepared by: Ms. Bernabeth Jo T. Tendero. Major Parts of the Cell. Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell Surface. Nucleus. Region of the cell where the genetic material is located Generally oval-shaped or spherical shaped Most conspicuous part of the cell

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Cell structure and composition

Cell Structure and Composition

Prepared by:

Ms. Bernabeth Jo T. Tendero

Major parts of the cell
Major Parts of the Cell

  • Nucleus

  • Cytoplasm

  • Cell Surface


  • Region of the cell where the genetic material is located

  • Generally oval-shaped or spherical shaped

  • Most conspicuous part of the cell

  • Regulates and coordinates all the activities of the cell

  • Denser than surrounding cytoplasm

Parts of the nucleus1
Parts of the Nucleus

  • Chromosomes

    - in form of chromatin

    - contains genetic information

    - Composed of DNA

    - Thicken for cellular division

    - Set number per species (i.e. 23 pairs for human)

Nuclear membrane
Nuclear Membrane

  • Surrounds the nucleus

  • Double membrane

  • Has numerous opening called nuclear pores which serves as pathways for exchange of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm


  • Spherical shape

  • Visible when cell is not dividing

  • Contains RNA for protein manufacture


  • Protoplasm found outside the nucleus

  • Collective term for cytosol and organelles

  • Colloidal suspension

  • Cytosol composed mainly of water with free floating molecules

  • Viscosity constantly changes


  • Discrete structures of a cell having specialized functions

Centrioles helper in cell division
Centrioles: Helper in Cell Division

  • Paired cylindrical organelles near nucleus

  • Composed of nine tubes, each with three tubules

  • Involved in cellular division

  • Lie at right angles to each other

Cytoskeleton framework of the cell
Cytoskeleton: Framework of the Cell

  • Composed of microtubules

  • Supports and provides shape

  • Aids movement of materials in and out of cells

  • Microtubules provide pathways for certain cellular molecules to move about

Endoplasmic reticulum manufacturers and builders of the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Manufacturers and Builders of the Cell

  • Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane

  • Goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane

  • Stores, separates and serves as cell’s transport system

Endoplasmic reticulum manufacturers and builders of the cell1
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Manufacturers and Builders of the Cell

  • 2 types

    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

    - occurs as flattened sheets studded on its outer surface with small spherical bodies called ribosomes

    - aids in protein synthesis

    - prevalent in cells that specializes in

    secreting proteins

Endoplasmic reticulum manufacturers and builders of the cell2
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Manufacturers and Builders of the Cell

  • 2 types

    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

    - occurs as tubes of membranes without

    ribosomes attached

    - site for fat metabolism and forms

    vesicles for transporting large molecules to other cell parts

Golgi apparatus packaging counters of the cell
Golgi Apparatus: Packaging Counters of the Cell Cell

  • Discovered and named after Camillo Golgi in 1898 by observing nerve cells of an owl

  • A system of membrane-bound sacs that look like a stack of pancakes

  • Believe to be part of ER and where new membranes for the ER are manufactured

  • Believe to prepare proteins for secretion after they are released from the ER

Lysosomes suicide bags of the cell
Lysosomes Cell: Suicide Bags of the Cell

  • “Lyso” – dissolving power and “some” – body

  • Discovered in 1952

  • Contains hydrolytic/digestive enzymes for proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

  • Transports undigested material to the cell membrane for removal

  • Destroys cells when lysosomes burst

Lysosomes Cell

Mitochondria powerhouses of the cell
Mitochondria: Powerhouses of the Cell Cell

  • 2nd largest organelle with its own DNA (mtDNA)

  • Double layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae

  • Energy-producing chemical reactions (produces ATP) takes place on cristae

  • Controls level of water and other materials in cell

  • Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and forms urea

Ribosomes protein factories of the cell
Ribosomes Cell: Protein Factories of the Cell

  • Composed of nucleic acids (RNA) and proteins

  • Numerous in cells

  • Manufacture proteins

Ribosomes Cell

Ribosomes Cell

Vacuoles storage tanks of the cell
Vacuoles: Storage Tanks of the Cell Cell

  • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion and waste removal

  • Contains water solution

  • Contractile vacuoles for water removal

Vacoules Cell

Peroxisome Cell

  • Contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen to various substrate of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide

  • Use oxygen to break fats to use as fuel for cellular respiration

  • Detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds

Chloroplast site of photosynthesis
Chloroplast: Site of Photosynthesis Cell

  • Plastid found in plant cells

  • Contains green chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place

  • Has its own DNA and ribosomes

  • Double membrane bound organelle

  • Mobile and move around the cell through cytosleleton

Cell surface
Cell Surface Cell

  • Protectively surrounds the cell

  • Plasma membrane

  • Cell wall

  • Plasmodesmata

Plasma membrane
Plasma Membrane Cell

  • Double layer of phospholipid molecules

  • Each phospholipid is composed of fats, phosphate and carbohydrates (oligosaccharide)

  • Protein molecules are embedded in phospholipids

  • Because of its structure the membrane has a semi-permeable property that allows only chosen substances to enter and leave the cell

Cell wall
Cell Wall Cell

  • Lies outside the plasma membrane

  • Compose of cellulose

  • Protects the cells and provide rigid structure for cells

  • Remains intact even after the rest of the cell has died

Cell wall1
Cell Wall Cell

Cell wall2
Cell Wall Cell

Cell wall3
Cell Wall Cell

Plasmodesmata Cell

  • small channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of neighboring plant cells to each other, establishing living bridges between cells

  • allow certain molecules to pass directly from one cell to another and are important in cellular communication