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Classification of Cellular Organism ( according to cell structure). Cellular Organism. Have nuclear membrane and membrane –bound organells?. not free-living organisms . Yes. No. Eucaryotes. Procaryotes: bacteria. Virus. Protists : Fungi, Algae, protozoa Plant : seed plants, mosses

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slide1

Classification of Cellular Organism(according to cell structure)

Cellular Organism

Have nuclear membrane

and membrane –bound organells?

not free-living organisms

Yes

No

Eucaryotes

Procaryotes: bacteria

Virus

Protists: Fungi, Algae, protozoa

Plant: seed plants, mosses

Animal: vertabrates and

invertabrates

Eubacteria:

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria

Non-gram bacteria:

Actinomycetes

Cynaobacteria

Archaebacteria:

methanogen

Halogen

Thermoacidophiles

classification of cellular organism according to cell structure

Classification of Cellular Organism(according to cell structure)

Cellular Organism

Have nuclear membrane

and membrane –bound organells?

not free-living organisms

Yes

No

Eucaryotes

Procaryotes: bacteria

Virus

Protists: Fungi, Algae, protozoa

Plant: seed plants, ferns, mosses

Animal: vertabrates and

invertabrates

Eubacteria:

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria

Non-gram bacteria

Actinomycetes

Cynaobacteria

Archaebateria:

methanogen

Halogen

Thermoacidophiles

procaryote
Procaryote

Procaryotes have no membrane around the cell genetic information and no membrane-bound organelles

  • Bacteria: e.g. E. Coli, Rhodospirillum sp.
  • Size: 0.5-3µm.
  • Grow rapidly: e.g. one cell can replicate into over a million cells in just 12 hours. In contrast, a human cell takes 24 hours to split.
  • Utilize carbon sources: carbohydrates, hydrocarbon, protein and CO2.
slide4

Picture courtesy of

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg

procaryote cell structure
Procaryote Cell Structure

Nuclear region

There is no membrane around the nuclear region containing genetic materials such as chromosomes and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Chromosomes:

A chromosome is, a very long, continuous piece of DNA, which contains many genes, regulatory elements and other intervening nucleotide sequences.

The DNA which carries genetic information in biological cells is normally packaged in the chromosomes.

slide6

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg

procaryote cell structure1
Procaryote Cell Structure

Cytoplasm

In cytoplasm, there are some visible structures:

  • ribosomes: sites of protein synthesis, 10,000 per cell,

10 -20 nm, 63% RNA and 37% protein.

  • storage granules: source of key metabolites, containing polysaccharides, lipids and sulfur granules. Sizes vary between 0.5-1 µm.
  • Plasmids:DNA molecules separate from the chromosomal DNA and capable of autonomous replication. Usually occur in bacteria. e.g E.coli

Application in Genetic Engineering.

slide8

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg

procaryote cell structure2
Procaryote Cell Structure

Cytoplasmic membrane

  • The cytoplasm is surrounded by a membrane called cytoplasmic membrane.
  • The cytoplasmic membrane contains 50% protein, 30% lipids and 20% carbohydrates.
slide10

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg

procaryote cell structure3
Procaryote Cell Structure

Cell wall

- Eubacteria cell walls contain lipids & peptidoglycan which is a complex polysaccharide with amino acids and forms a structure somewhat like chain-link fence.

- Archaebacteria cell walls do not have peptidoglycan.

Outer membrane:

Some bacteria (gram negative cells) have.

- To retain important cellular compounds and

- To exclude undesirable compounds in the environment.

slide12

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/procaryotes/images/procaryote.jpg

procaryote cell structure4
Procaryote Cell Structure

Capsule:

Extracellular products can adhere to or become incorporated within the surface of the cell.

Certain cells have a coating outside the cell wall called capsule.

It contains polysaccharides or polypeptide and forms biofilm response to environmental challenges.

Flagellum: is for cell motion.

Pilus (Pili, pl.)

A pilus is a hairlike structure on the surface of a cell.

Pili enable the transfer of plasmids between the bacteria.

An exchanged plasmid can add new functions to a bacterium, e.g., an antibiotic resistance.

procaryotes
Procaryotes

Procaryotes include

- Eubacteria

- Archaebacteria

eubacteria
Eubacteria

Cell chemistry of eubacteria is similar to eucaryotes.

Classification

Gram stain: Hans Christian Gram in 1884 developed the technique of gram stain which has been used to classify the eubacteria.

Gram staining procedure: Fixing the cells by heating

Dye with crystal violet – stain purple

Iodine and ethanol are added

a. Gram-negative: The cells are colorless after Gram staining procedure. Gram-negative organisms will be counterstained with safranin and appear red or pink. Such cells have outer membrane supported by peptidoglycan e.g. E. coli.

b. Gram-positive: the cells remain purple after gram staining and counterstaining procedures. Such cells have no outer membrane but with a rigid cell wall and thick peptidoglycan layer, e.g. B. subtilis.

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab6/images/gram_stain_11.swf

eubacteria1
Eubacteria

Other types of eubacteria:

  • Non gram bacteria: some bacteria are not gram-positive or negative.

e.g Mycoplasma is non gram bacteria lack of cell wall.

It is an important cause of peumonia and other respiratory disorders.

Actinomycetes: bacteria but, morphologically resembles molds with their long and high branched hyphae.

They are important source of antibiotics.

archaebacteria
Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria cells differ greatly from eubacteria

at the molecular level.

- no peptidoglycan

- The nucleotide sequences in the ribosomal RNA are similar within the archaebacteria but distinctly different from eubacteria.

- The lipid composition of the cytoplasm membrane is very different for the two groups.

This category includes:

- methanogen: methane-producing bacteria

- Halogen: living only in very strong salt solutions

- Thermoacidophile: growing at high temperatures and low pH.

procaryote reproduction
Procaryote Reproduction

Reproduction: exclusively asexual through binary fission.

The chromosome is duplicated and attaches to the cell membrane, and then the cell divides into two equal cells.

fission
Fission

http://www.beyondbooks.com/lif72/2a.asp