نقش ويتامين D در سلامت. فروزان صالحي دفتر بهبود تغذيه جامعه شهريور 1393. ویتامین D. محلول در چربی Sunshine vitamin هورمون یا ماده مغذی؟ پیش سازهای ویتامین :D (7-دهیدرو کلسترول و ارگوسترول). ویتامین D. انواع : ويتامين D 2 (گياهي: ارگوكلسيفرول)
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3 oz light tuna, canned in oil = 229 IU
1 large, whole egg = 29 IU
The recommendation adequate intakes for vitamin D are inadequate, and, in the absence of exposure to sunlight, a minimum of 1000IU vitamin D is required to maintain a health concentration of 25(OH)D in the blood. -Holick MF
یک میلیارد نفر در دنیا دچار کمبود ویتامین د یا ویتامین د ناکافی (در حاشیه کمبود) هستند
در كنار كاهش فعاليت بدني، قطع هورمونهاي جنسي و دريافت ناكافي كلسيم)
دستگاه گوارش، پروستات، پستان، لنفوم، آندومتر و ریه
Zhou, et al., 2005
Cui & Rohan, 2006
<get this article: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, May>Knight , 2007
Is ultraviolet B irradiance inversely associated with incidence rates of endometrial cancer: an ecological study of 107 countries.
Mohr, et al, 2007
Skinner, et al., 2006
U.S. nurses taking the most vitamin D had a relative risk of MS of 0.66 vs. least vitamin D
Fish consumption also reduces the risk of MS. Fish is a good source of vitamin D.
Itestimate that 40-70% of MS in the U.S. could have been prevented through adequate vitamin D, especially in winter
This is the season when infectious diseases are most common; MS appears to be caused by infectious disease
Circulating vitamin D levels are lowest in winter
Muscle pain, weakness
Progression of rheumatoid and osteo-arthritis
Type 1 diabetes mellitus in infancy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Body, brain disorders during fetal development
Irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease
High blood pressure, heart disease
Inflammatory and autoimmune disease
Hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus
Pittas, et al., 2006
Hopponen, et al., 2001
Ford, et al., 2005
Black, et al., Chest, 2005
Schleithoff, et al., 2006
Association of low intake of milk and vit D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight.
C.A. Mannion, Katherine Gray-Donald, kristine G. Koski. CMAJ April 25, 2006
-Women between ages 19-45yrs
-</= 250 ml of milk = low birth weight
-milk or vit D independent predictor of BW
-1 cup milk = 41 gm increase in BW
-1 Mcg increase in dietary vit D = 11 gm increase in BW
Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9yrs.
M.K. Javaid, SR Crozeir at al. Lancet Jan 7 2006
-198 children born in 1991-92 in South Hampton UK
-children were followed up at age 9yrs
-31% mother had insufficient and 18% had deficient serum vit D during late pregnancy
-decrease vit D in mothers = decrease bone mineral content in children at age 9 yrs
-mother’s exposure to UV rays and use of vit d predicted vit d and childhood bone mass
Vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants in Iowa.
Ekhard E. Ziegler, Bruce w. Hollis, Steven E Nelson and Janice M. Jeter. Pediatrics 2006
-84 breastfed infants
-blood samples and dietary records were taken
-35 infants were unsupplemented
-49 infants were either supplemented with formula or vit D
-10% were vit D deficient
-Marked seasonal affect more so in the unsupplemented group
-mainly but not exclusively during winter and occurred in light and dark skinned infants
After repletion of body stores, 800 IU of vitamin D daily or 50,000 IU of vitamin D once or twice monthly is adequate maintenance therapy.
To correct deficiency: 50,000 IU vitamin D weekly x 8 weeks, reassess and repeat if necessary