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Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA

Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA

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Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA

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  1. Strumentazione sub-mm/mm pre-ALMA • APEX • SCUBA & SCUBA-2 • IRAM • SMA • CSO • OVRO, BIMA  CARMA • NMA Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  2. APEX:Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment Location: Llano de Chajnantor (Chile, 5000 m) Antenna modified copy of US ALMA prototype MPIfR=50% Onsala Sp. Obs=23% ESO=27% PI: Karl Menten PS: Peter Schilke 12 m diameter 300-1500 μm= 230-1200 GHz Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  3. Instruments • Bolometers arrays: • LABOCA (LArge BOlometer • CAmera): • 870 micron (345 GHz) • 295 channels • beam size=18 arcsec • FOV=11.4 arcmin • scanning and jiggling required • for fully sampled maps • 350 micron (850 GHz) array: • 37-channel bolometer (next) • 2 mm (150 GHz) array: • 3oo channel bol. for SZ (next) • Heterodyne receivers: • 230 GHz (1.3 mm)+340 GHz (0.9 mm) • receivers (from SEST) • 460 GHz (650 micron) 16-pixel • CHAMP array (from CSO) • 810 GHz (370 micron) receiver • (from JCMT) • Upgrade of CHAMP/dual receiver: • 650 and 810 GHz (next) • Experimental receivers above 1 THz • (next) Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  4. Summary of the first generation facility instruments Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  5. Observing Time Consortium: The Astronomical Institute at the University of Bochum (AIRUB), the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) and the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR)  10% observing time for Chilean astronomers Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  6. SCUBA: the Sub-mm Common-User Bolometer Array • 15-m diameter telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii, 4092 m) • INSTRUMENTS • Sub-mm bolometers: • Simultaneous observations at 850 μm (353 GHz, 37 bolometers) and 450 μm (670 GHz, 91 bolometers) • Diameter f.o.v.=2.3 arcmin, beam=15-7 arcsec; cooled at 100 mK • UK, Canada, and The Netherlands collaboration, ~5-10% observing time to international programs. • Spectral line receivers: • 3 receivers: A3: 230 GHz – B3: 345 GHz – W: 460 and 690 GHz Heterodyne polarimeter: • all frequencies. Next: ROVER (2-3 mm window) Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  7. The SCUBA-2 project • SCUBA-2: • Transition Edge Sensor arrays: two dc-coupled, monolithic, filled arrays with a total of 10240 bolometers • Two focal-plane units  each unit has 4 sub-arrays with 40x32 elements • Observing bands: 850 μm and 450 μm • F.O.V.=50 arcmin sq.=12xSCUBA • Sensitivity: a factor ~2-3 better than SCUBA • 1000 times faster than SCUBA to reach the same S/N for maps (fully sampled image in just one pointing) • Cooled at 120 mK  limited by the sky background photon noise • Delivered to the JCMT in Feb. 2006 (2 sub-arrays) and completed in • Nov. 2006 (all sub-arrays) Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  8. SCUBA-2 focal plane Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  9. IRAM: Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique • French-German-Spanish collaboration • Two observatories • 30-m single-dish telescope on Pico Veleta (2850 m, Spain) • 6-antenna (15 m each) interferometer on the Plateau de Bure • (2550 m, France) • 1. 30-m Telescope • Bolometer systems: • MAMBO I: 1.2mm, beam=11 arcsec, 37 pixels • MAMBO II: 1.2mm, beam=11 arcsec, 117 pixels plus receivers in the range 80-272 GHz • 2. PdBI • Receiver at 1.3 mm (205-250 GHz), resolution~0.5 arcsec, f.o.v.=20” • Receiver at 3 mm (81-115 GHz) Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  10. SMA: Sub-Millimeter Array Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory + Academia Sinica of Astronomy and Astrophysics collaboration 8 x 6-m antenna interferometer on Mauna Kea (~4000m, Hawaii), baseline as long as 500 m, ≈180-900 GHz band 2 simultaneous receivers/element Receiver bands: 230, 345, 460, 690, and 850 GHz Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  11. CSO: Caltech Submillimeter Observatory • 10.4-m diameter telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) • INSTRUMENTS • Bolometer systems: • BOLOCAM: 115 working pixels, f.o.v.=8 arcmin (circular), beam size=30 arcsec (1.1 mm) and 60 arcsec (2.1 mm) • SHARC II: 12x32 array of bolometers at 350-450 μm f.o.v.=1.0x2.5 arcmin sq., beam~8.5 arcsec (350 μm) COMPLEMENTARY TO SCUBA • Heterodyne receivers: • 230, 345,490, and 665 GHz Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  12. OVRO: Owens Valley Radio Observatory Caltech / National Science Foundation 6 x 10.4-m antenna interferometer (California, ~1200 m) Beam-width=65” at 100 GHz Receiver bands: 86-116 GHz(3 mm) and 210-270 GHz (1 mm) Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  13. BIMA: Berkeley Illinois Maryland Association 10 x 6.1-m antenna interferometer OVRO and BIMA have now ceased operations CARMA Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  14. CARMA: Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy CARMA=OVRO+BIMA on a site in Eastern California (~3000 m a.s.l.) NSF + Universities SPECIFICATIONS ARRAY:15 antennas (6 x 10.4 m + 9 x 6.1 m), 772 m2 , 0.5 arcsec res. at 230 GHz RECEIVERS:115, 230, and 345 GHz Fully operational: end of 2005? Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  15. NMA: Nobeyama Millimeter Array ARRAY:6 x 10m antennas BANDS:3 mm (85-116 GHz), 2 mm (126-152 GHz), and 1 mm (213-237 GHz) resolution down to 1 arcsec NMA plus the 45 m single-dish telescope  RAINBOW (f.o.v.=20 arcsec at 3 mm) 10 m sub-mm ASTE Riunione ALMA extragalattica

  16. if you have questions… I’m not sure I can answer … Riunione ALMA extragalattica