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What is Engineering Risk and Reliability? Why We Use It? Robert C. Patev NAD Regional Technical Specialist (978) 318-839 PowerPoint Presentation
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What is Engineering Risk and Reliability? Why We Use It? Robert C. Patev NAD Regional Technical Specialist (978) 318-8394. Traditional (Deterministic) What went wrong or what is broken? Why did it go wrong or break?. Risk Based (Probabilistic) What went wrong or what is broken?

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What is Engineering Risk and Reliability?Why We Use It?Robert C. PatevNAD Regional Technical Specialist(978) 318-8394

risk based vs traditional analysis methods
Traditional (Deterministic)

What went wrong or what is broken?

Why did it go wrong or break?

Risk Based (Probabilistic)

What went wrong or what is broken?

Why did it go wrong or break?

How likely is it to occur?

What are the consequences?

Risk Based vs. TraditionalAnalysis Methods
traditional methods
Traditional Methods
  • Describe the condition of an existing facility
  • Parameters describing the condition are assigned single values
  • Uncertainty is implicitly included in selecting values
  • Engineer’s experience, judgment and conservatism are reflected qualitatively
  • Component performance is compared to a standard -- usually one for new components
risk based methods
Risk Based Methods
  • Describe the condition of an existing facility
  • Parameters describing the condition are selected as random variables
  • Uncertainty is explicitly included, as probability distributions, in selecting values
  • Engineer’s experience, judgment and conservatism are quantified
  • Component performance is related to the consequences of unsatisfactory system performance.
what is risk6
What is Risk?
  • Insurance industry: risk = consequence

High Risk

Consequence

Low Risk

what is risk7
What is Risk?
  • Public health: risk = incidence (frequency or probability)

High Risk

Low Risk

Probability

what is risk8
What is Risk?
  • Management & engineering:

Risk = probability * consequence

High Risk

Consequence

Low Risk

Probability

what is risk10
What is Risk?
  • Risk is a measure of the probability and consequence of uncertain future events
  • Risk includes
    • Potential for gain (opportunities)
    • Exposure to losses (hazards)
  • Risk may be expressed mathematically as the product of the probability of an adverse event, and the economic or life threatening consequences
    • Probabilities and event trees are determined by engineers and consequences are estimated by economists
why use risk
Why Use Risk?
  • Risk is the common basis for comparing different types of engineering problems such as:
    • Gates subjected to corrosion and fatigue do not operate correctly, fail and cause navigation delays
    • Levee fails by breaching and causes property damages during flood event
    • Dam fails during earthquake causing release of pool and damage to property downstream
    • Breakwater fails during Northeaster and navigation to harbor is shut down until dredging and breakwater repairs can be made
where we use risk
Where We Use Risk?
  • Across all USACE Business Lines
    • Navigation
    • Hydropower
    • Flood Damage Reduction (Dams and Levees)
    • Coastal Storm Damage Reduction
  • Use in USACE Engineering
      • Major Rehabilitation since 1991
      • Navigation System-wide Studies
      • Hurricane Protection System Studies
        • IPET Hurricane Katrina Performance Evaluation
      • Dam Safety
      • Levee Safety
      • Asset Management
risk based method
Risk Based Method
  • Combines:
    • Probabilistic analyses
    • Statistical data
    • Engineering judgment
    • Facility performance
  • Goal is to assists the Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) Process:
    • Adds valuable information to decision-making process for justifying rehabilitation or other funding by integrating engineering reliability with economic and life consequences

Engineering Reliability

what is reliability
What is Reliability?
  • Definition: Reliability is a measure of a facility or component to perform its intended function under specified operating conditions for a given period of time
  • P(f) + P(s) = 1
  • P(f) is the probability of failure (failures / event)
  • P(s) is the probability of survival (successes / event)
  • So the probability that satisfactory performance will occur is called the reliability (R) or:

R = 1 - p(f) = 1- p(u)

Where p(u) is the probability of unsatisfactory performance (PUP)

slide16

Determination of Performance Probabilities, P(f) or P(u)

  • Historical Rates of Occurrence
  • Survivorship Curves
  • Analytical Methods
  • Expert Opinion Elicitation
basic era framework
Basic ERA Framework
  • Evaluate Structure or Component Performance (PUP)
    • Determine Current Performance Level
    • Estimate Future Performance
    • Estimate Repair Alternatives
  • Predict Consequences of Unsatisfactory Performance for Evaluated Planning Alternatives
  • Develop Consequence Event Trees Consistent with Unsatisfactory Performance Limit State
common problems with era
Common Problems with ERA
  • Reliability Side
    • Reliability models are not calibrated to experience
    • Hazard function analysis is not used for time-dependent conditions
    • Inappropriate or incorrect use of expert elicitation
    • Post repair reliability is not adjusted in the life-cycle analyses
    • The “Fix-as-fails” base case and the advance maintenance alternatives are not consistently evaluated for reliability
  • Consequences Side
    • Only worst case scenarios are used in the event trees. Consequences are grossly overstated….”The sky is falling!”
    • Event trees are not complete or consistent with the limit states
    • Unreliable alternatives are mistakenly recommended as viable solutions
era guidance
ERA Guidance
  • New Engineering Circular – EC1110-2-6062
    • Entitled “Risk and Reliability Engineering for Major Rehabilitation Studies”
    • Single source covers risk and reliability applications for all disciplines (structural, geotechnical, mechanical and electrical and hydropower)
    • Covers engineering reliability integrated with modeling of economic consequences
    • However, does not cover Dam Safety or Levee Safety ERA