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section I Introduction. for the Small Enterprise. Systems Analysis and Design. basic information-processing requirements small-enterprise information system problems fact finding and diagnosis feasibility analysis the cornucopia case portfolio project. Chapter Objectives.

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slide1

section I

Introduction

for the Small Enterprise

Systems Analysis and Design

basic information-processing requirements

small-enterprise information system problems

fact finding and diagnosis

feasibility analysis

the cornucopia case

portfolio project

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives

When you complete this chapter you will be able to:

  • Describe the basic information processing requirements
  • Identify the common problems associated with the information systems of small enterprises
  • Understand how to become familiar with the existing information system
  • Prepare a feasibility report
  • Use various resources for fact-finding and diagnosis to develop the project contract

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slide3

Perspective is Everything

Project Management Perspective

basic information processing requirements
Basic Information-Processing Requirements

Information must be:

  • Relevant
  • Accurate
  • Timely
  • Usable
  • Affordable
  • Adaptable
  • Accessible

Reference Figure 2-1: Basic Information Processing Requirements

4

small enterprise information system problems
Small-Enterprise Information System Problems

Typically, the small enterprise has problems keeping up with the cyclical nature of information processing. The analyst may observe the following symptoms :

  • Product processing controls are ineffective
  • Client files are inaccurate and incomplete
  • Customer correspondence is haphazard
  • Business tracking and forecasting is spotty
  • Customer billing systems are not timely
  • Inventory control procedures are unreliable

Reference Figure 2-3: Small-Enterprise Information System Problem Symptoms

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small enterprise information system problems1
Small-Enterprise Information System Problems

Common information system deficiencies:

  • Source data input inefficiencies
  • Breakdowns in subsystem integration

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fact finding and diagnosis
Fact-Finding and Diagnosis

Activities that help the analyst pinpoint problems, clarify user expectations, and foster agreement on a contract:

  • Industry research
  • Online research
  • Personal contacts
  • Documentation review
  • Looking at the six system components

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fact finding interviews questionnaires and observations 1 3

TECHNOTE 2-1

Fact-Finding Interviews, Questionnaires, and Observations (1/3)

Interview Techniques:

Schedule your interview meetings

Provide advance information on interview content

Prepare questions in advance

Document the results

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fact finding interviews questionnaires and observations 2 3

TECHNOTE 2-1

Fact-Finding Interviews, Questionnaires, and Observations (2/3)

Questionnaire Techniques:

Tailor questionnaire to the audience

Limit the number of questions

Questions should require short answers

Conduct a trial test of the questionnaire

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fact finding interviews questionnaires and observations 3 3

TECHNOTE 2-1

Fact-Finding Interviews, Questionnaires, and Observations (3/3)

On-Site Observation Techniques

Plan your visit

Coordinate your visit with on-site personnel

Take brief notes during your visit

Review your findings with the user

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figure 2 5 request for system services
Figure 2-5: Request for System Services

Date: February 1, 2004

From: T. Foster – CIS Lab Manager

To: M.L. Barnes – Systems Analyst

Description:

At present, students record their time-in and time-out on a time card. Lab assistants compute and record the elapsed time on the card and enter this amount into a spreadsheet. Summary reports are printed monthly.

There are two big problems with this procedure: (1) students and lab assistants make a lot of clerical errors and (2) lab assistants spend too much time on this task.

Constraints:

Cost/Budget – $800

Time Frame – Complete by April 1, 2004

Other – A spare desktop computer is available

Reference Figure 2-5: Request for System Services

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feasibility analysis
Feasibility Analysis

Given the project objectives, cost constraints, and delivery date, is there a practical solution to the problem?

  • Build strategies
    • Develop your own programs
    • Customize horizontal software
  • Buy strategies
    • Purchase vertical software
    • Purchase a turnkey system

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feasibility analysis1
Feasibility Analysis

Vertical Software

Advantages:

  • Available immediately
  • Verifiable track record
  • Generally tailored to the enterprise
  • Fixed price

Disadvantages:

  • Difficult to modify
  • Must rely on long-distance assistance
  • May not address all the user’s problems
  • May include features the user doesn’t need

Reference Figure 2-6: Advantages and Disadvantages of Vertical Software

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documentation and deliverables

TECHNOTE 2-2

Documentation and Deliverables

Project documentation is an organized collection of papers and files that describe the project from beginning to end. Documentation examples are:

Request for services

Notes from interviews, observations, and questionnaires

Feasibility report

Project deliverables are products delivered to the user. The project contract is an example.

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feasibility analysis2
Feasibility Analysis

The project contract consists of:

  • Problem Summary
  • Scope
  • Constraints
  • Objectives

Reference Figure 2-7: The Initial Project Contract

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the cornucopia case

The Cornucopia Case

Cornucopia is a small music store in the “Old Town” section of the business district. The owner wants an information system that will:

Improve customer record-keeping procedures

Improve the reordering system

Improve customer correspondence

Provide sales trend analysis

Reference Figure 2-8: Cornucopia Initial Problem Statement

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figure 2 9 cornucopia feasibility report

We found nothing that alters

the four specific problem areas

identified in your initial request.

Figure 2-9: Cornucopia Feasibility Report

We can complete this project

within the constraints … and that

… sufficient benefits will accrue …

to justify the costs of the system.

Upon your approval, we will

prepare a contract …

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figure 2 10 cornucopia project contract 1 2

Summary:

… improve in four areas:

1. Customer record keeping

2. Product reordering

3. Customer communications

4. Sales trend analysis

Figure 2-10: Cornucopia Project Contract (1/2)

Scope:

… Include a point-of-sale inventory system

… Include a Web site

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figure 2 10 cornucopia project contract 2 2

Constraints:

Cost: not to exceed $10,000

Delivery Date: within four months

Other: training, master file creation

Figure 2-10: Cornucopia Project Contract (2/2)

Objectives:

… not increase time to record a sale

… add no more than five hours per week

to maintain master files

… reduce CD reorder time by 50%

… increase repeat customer sales by 5%

… reduce “out-of-stock” and “over-stock”

by 50%

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chapter summary 1 2
Chapter Summary (1/2)
  • Several basic information processing requirements apply to all types of information systems
  • Small-enterprise information systems are subject to some special types of problems
  • The analyst must investigate the situation in order to develop a clear understanding of the information needs of the enterprise

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chapter summary 2 2
Chapter Summary (2/2)
  • It is important to obtain a written statement or Request for System Services to help define the user’s needs
  • A Feasibility Report documents analyst findings and presents an evaluation of the ability to satisfy the project requirements
  • A Project Contract defines project requirements, scope, constraints, and objectives

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