PIA 2574Governance and the Failure of the African State Theme: Institutions and the “New” Africa “An Editorial?”
Overview of Themes 1. Sovereignty 2. Debates About Democracy 3. Traditionalism 4. Institutionalism 5. Collapse 6. Reasons for Collapse
The Primacy of the African Nation-State- How sovereign a. Impact of trans-national actors b. Issue of micro-states c. Rational Actor model- public or social choice theory
The Primacy of the African Nation-State- How sovereign d. Collective choice is it non-rational? Is it more than an aggregate of individuals? e. The role of international regimes- UN, World Bank, IMF, etc. New International Order (NIO)
Governance and Sovereignty- • Rules of the Game politics: Zero/sum vs. sum/sum politics • "Splintering"- the break up of states- centrifugal forces • Interest Group Liberalism-how real? • Civil Society as organizational, not individual, or the mass.
Governance and Sovereignty- The need for apathy? Constitutional vs. social stability Institutional structures and Checks and balances:
Democracy: What is it? Democracy and: • 1. Governance • 2. Local Government • 3. Civil Society
Definitions of Democracy: Review • Presidential Systems- Separation of Powers • Parliamentary systems- Representation and Fusion • Traditional Africa- Consensus and hierarchy
Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy • Populism vs. Minority rights • Shifting majorities • Problem with Plebiscites Guinea 1958 “No” Vote
Review: James Madison and Democracy: • The problem with majorities • Tyranny • Factions
Types of Democracy • Direct Democracy • Indirect Democracy • Pluralism vs. Polyarchy • Civil Society • Cooperative Movement
Definitions of Democracy in Africa • The First Issue: Opposition vs. Consensus • The Second Issue: “A Chief is a Chief by the People”
Traditional Society and Democracy • Forms of Traditional Influence in Local Government • Grass Roots- traditional governance mechanisms governance in sub-Saharan Africa • The Answer or the Problem?
Defining Democracy • Village democracy and talking things out • Ubuntu, Ujamaa and Humanism • How Collective, How Market Friendly
Ethnicity, Class and Religion • Contextual- intensification of ethnic identity- and the reverse • Ethnicity as Nationalism • Ethnicity and Class
How Chiefs Influence Governance • Continued influence and high status of those who hold “tribal” authority (Dyarchy) • Presence in high political and administrative positions of those who are descendents or relatives of traditional leaders • Status without official sanction but consists of party functionaries or bureaucrats
Forms of Traditional Influence on Local Level Governance • Bicameral- Traditional Elites represented in an Upper House • Unicameral- Preserved Traditional Seats in Legislature • Grassroots: Traditional Mechanisms of Governance at sub-district, area or village level
Forms of Traditional Influence on Local Level Governance • Full Meetings (Town Hall Style) Consensus by Direct Democracy • Pure Traditional Representation- Traditional Councils (Appointed) • Partial- Councils which are half elected and half traditional
Forms of Traditional Influence on Local Level Governance • Technical and Deconcentrated Boards. Department heads and Traditional Representatives • Specialized through the Traditional judicial Function • Triangular-2 traditional, 2 elected councilors and two appointed by central government (eg. Land Boards)
Traditional Elites • Inherited States failed to deal with Traditional Leadership • Continuing Influence of Traditional Elites regardless of formal standing and regime type
Traditional Leadership in Tanzania • Tanzania Abolishes Chiefs in 1960s • Study of Political Party Activists (Norman Miller) • Many activists are former traditional elites or relatives of chiefs and sub-chiefs
Traditional Leadership in Tanzania • Informally the Party remained highly dependent upon traditional leaders on an informal basis • Traditional political values still socialize people (both in urban and rural areas) • Party informally accepts traditional roles as long as it give loyalty to the party
Traditional Influence-Review 1. Full Meeting (Town Hall style)- Direct Democracy 2. Pure Form- Traditional Councils (Appointed) 3. Partial- Half Elected/Half Traditional 4. Technical- deconcentrated. Department heads and Traditional (No Elections
Traditional Influence 5. Specialized- Judicial Function 6. Specialized Partial- Land Board (2 Trad., 2 LG, 2 Cen. Gov.) 7. Bicameral- Traditional as an upper house
Brief Discussion • So What about Traditionalism?
Ten Minute Break • Remember Purposeful Penny Coffee: 8:30-12:30 Monday-Friday
THE INSTITUTIONAL STATE • What is the "Institutional State?“ • Why is it important?
The importance of political institutions Rules and processes (formal and informal) are essential
The Institutional State: • Civil Society • Institutionalized Norms • Stable Government
The Institutional State: • Permanent Government: The Administrative apparatus • Goal: Muted Cultural Differences • Defining Bureaucracy- the permanent government
The Institutional State • Institutionalized Norms and Rules • Diverse and Representative Civil Society • Stable Government Structures • Muted Cultural Differences