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  1. NUTRITION By Dale M Forsyth Purdue University SAG 106 – ANSC 101

  2. Nutrition deals with providing the right nutrients in the right amounts in the diet. • Definition • Deals with the nutrients needed, their metabolism, feeds that supply those nutrients, and feeding systems to provide them

  3. NUTRIENT • DEFINED • A chemical or chemical compound that aids in the support of life, and is essential for the normal function, growth and reproduction of the animal.

  4. CLASSES of NUTRIENTS • There are 6 Classes of Nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals

  5. ANALYSIS Water Water Carbohydrates Crude Fiber NFE Fats Ether Extract Protein Crude Protein Minerals Ash Vitamins Too small to weigh

  6. WATER • The most crucial nutrient. • What % water loss is fatal to animals? • ~12%

  7. 3 sources of water to animals • Drinking Water • Water in Feed • Metabolic Water • C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O • Impt to: • Hibernating animals • Water conserving animals

  8. Functions of Water in Animals • Many many functions, which include: • Movement of nutrients and metabolites • Constant body temperature • Media for chemical reactions • Takes part in chemical reactions • Special roles

  9. Special Roles • Synovial fluid – lubricant • Cerebrospinal fluid – cushion • Sound transmission in ear • Light transmission in eye

  10. Approximate WATER CONSUMPTION SpeciesLiters/Day • Beef 26-66 • Dairy 38-110 • Horses 30-45 • Swine 11-19 • Sheep & Goats 4-15 • Chickens .2-.4 • Turkeys .4-.6

  11. Factors Affecting H2O Reqmt • Species • Environmental temperature • Protein, salt and dry matter intake • Lactation • Age • Activity • Rate & composition of gain • Health

  12. Practical Aspect • Make good, clean water liberally available at all times (EXCEPT certain conditions: Before or After HEAVY exercise)

  13. CARBOHYDRATES

  14. CARBOHYDRATES •  Carbohydrates are made of the elements: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen • H to O ration as in water (2:1) (CnH2nOn)

  15. Carbohydrates are made of molecules called: • SUGARS (saccharides)

  16. Forms of Carbohydrates • soluble – • sugars • monosaccharides • Disaccharides • Some polysaccharides • insoluble • Most polysaccharides

  17. Crude Fiber (insoluble CHO) • Cellulose • Hemicellulose • Lignin

  18. Function of carbohydrates: ENERGY

  19. There are many monosaccharides. You are to know just a few

  20. PENTOSES • Arabinose • Xylose • Ribose

  21. HEXOSES • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose • Mannose

  22. 2 simple sugars bond to form: • DISACCHARIDES • Sucrose • Glucose + fructose •  Lactose • Glucose + galactose •  Maltose • Glucose + glucose,  bond • Cellobiose • Glucose + glucose ,  bond

  23. DISACCHARIDES • Sucrose •  table sugar • Lactose •  milk sugar •  Maltose – repeating unit of starch • Cellobiose – repeating unit of cellulose

  24. CHO STRUCTURES • Glucose

  25. Maltose = glucose + glucose • Connected by alpha bond

  26. POLYSACCHARIDES • STARCH • Starch is made of repeating units of (the disaccharide) •  Maltose • so it is really all: • GLUCOSE

  27. KINDS OF STARCH • AMYLOSE • AMYLOPECTIN

  28. Polysaccharides • Glycogen • Cellulose

  29. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STARCH AND CELLULOSE IS: • Starch is glucose connected with alpha bonds • Cellulose is glucose connected with beta bonds

  30. Animals do NOT make the enzyme that digests beta bonds. • Only bacteria make cellulase

  31. LIGNIN • LIGNIN IS NOT REALLY CARBOHYDRATE, but it is discussed here because it is in the fibrous part of the feed associated with cellulose, which is carbohydrate, and is analyized along with carbohydrate.

  32. Bad things about lignin • Completely indigestible • Binds to cellulose and decreases the digestibility (dramatically) of other feed components

  33. Good things about lignin • Nutritionally – NONE • For the plant • Helps insect resistance • Provides structural rigidity

  34. Analysis of CHO • Crude Fiber • NFE Better • Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) • Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)

  35. FATS (LIPIDS) • DEFINITION Lipids are substances that are soluble in ether (and other organic solvents).

  36. Largest, most impt category is Fats and Oils • Fats contain 2.25 X as much energy as CHO • Fats = 9 Kcal / g • Proteins = 4 Kcal / g • CHO = 4 Kcal / g • 9 / 4 = 2.25

  37. Fat composition Lipids are composed of the elements Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen (just like CHO) Difference is Fats contain LITTLE Oxygen compared to H and C. • C & H are the real fuel, O can come from air.

  38. Most fat is composed of GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS • Triglycerides have 1 glycerol & 3 Fatty Acids • Diglycerides have 1 glycerol & 2 Fatty Acids • Monoglycerides have 1 glycerol & 1 Fatty Acid

  39. Glycerol OH-C-H2 | OH-C-H | OH-C-H2 A 3 carbon alcohol

  40. Fatty Acid • Example – 16 carbons = palmitic acid • CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH

  41. Saturated vs Unsaturated • SATURATED (has all the H it can have) CH3(CH2)16COOH • UNSATURATED (contains double bonds) CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=(CH2)7COOH

  42. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA’s) • 2 carbon atoms = acetic acid CH3COOH • 3 carbon atoms = propionic acid CH3CH2COOH • 4 carbon atoms = butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COOH

  43. VFA’s Importance • In Rumen Fermentation • VFA’s are the end product of the bacteria breaking down carbohydrate (because there is no oxygen in the rumen).

  44. Medium Chain Fatty Acids • C-6 to C-14 acids are not real abundant

  45. Long Chain Fatty Acids • CDBFA • 16 0 palmitic • 18 0 stearic • 18 1 oleic • 18 2 linoleic "essential" • 18 3 linolenic "essential" • 20 4 arachidonic "essential"

  46. Essential Fatty Acids • Essential because they can’t be formed by the animal and must be in the diet. • (actually many animals can convert linoleic to arachidonic acid, but we’ll call all 3 the EFA’s) • Linoleic Acid • Linolenic Acid • Arachidonic Acid

  47. Essential Fatty Acids - Symptoms • Skin problems, scaly skin, necrosis • Necrosis of the tail • Growth failure • Reproductive failure • Edema • Subcutaneous hemorrhage • Poor feathering in chicks

  48. EFA’s – Practical Aspects • You will NOT see deficiency on animals fed practical diets. • You will NOT see deficiency in ruminant animals • (there is enough microbial synthesis in the rumen, even though microbes hydrogenate unsaturated fats).

  49. Functions for Fat in Diets • Energy • Provide EFA’s • Also: • Dust control – ½ to 1% does a good job • Absorption of fat soluble vitamins • Improves palatability of some diets

  50. Lipid Categories • Glycerides - most common • Most important dietary fat • ·        ~~~~~~~~ • ·        ~~~~~~~~~~ • ·        ~~~~~~~~