Impressionism Characteristics include: Scenes of daily leisurely activities Loose brushstrokes Pastel colors (with blues and violets replacing blacks and browns) Lack of a structured composition (as compared to a triangular Renaissance layout) Natural lighting
The Impressionists Edouard ManetFather of Impressionism – joined the group in 1873, but never stopped using black Claude Monet‘Impression: Sunrise”, most committed Impressionist painter, repeatedly painted objects over and over to observe how light affects color Pierre-Auguste RenoirRosy-cheeked people in social settings Mary CassattAmerica-born, known for women & children in natural domestic settings, eventually influenced by Ukiyo-e Japanese prints Edgar DegasDiagonal compositons, skilled at drawing, pastel, sculpture & painting, Teacher of Cassatt, Racehorses, Bathers & Ballerinas
The Post-Impressionists Post-Impressionism is a whole a term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet. It’s roughly the period between 1886 and 1892 to describe the artistic movements based on or derived from Impressionism. The term is now taken to mean those artists who followed the Impressionists and to some extent rejected their ideas. Generally, they considered Impressionism too casual or too naturalistic, and sought a means of exploring emotion in paint.
The Post-Impressionists Henri de Toulouse-LautrecDisabled poster artist known as one of the first Graphic Designers Paul CezanneLarge block-like brushstrokes; Still lifes, Landscapes Vincent Van GoghDistrurbed painter of loose brushstrokes and bright, vivid colors George SeuratFounder of Pointillism; Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte Paul GauguinRejected Urban Life and choose secondary-colored Tahitian women
MODERNISM • Modernism allowed artists to assert their freedom to create in a new style and provide them with a mission to define the meaning of their times.. • Early 20th Century Art was influenced by… • the beginning of the atomic age • existentialism (Nietzsche)- “God is Dead” • the invention of psychoanalysis • Freud-inner drives control human behavior • Jung-collective unconscious • The Russian Revolution • The Great War (humanity’s inhumanity) • The Great Global Depression • the rise of the “Avant Garde”
Sum up the early 1900s with the three types: THE EXPRESSIVE (color) THE ABSTRACT (shape) THE WEIRD (form & fantasy) Fauvism Die Brucke Der Blaue Reiter Cubism Futurism Art Deco Dada Surrealism
Expressionism • The use of uncharacteristic colors chosen by the artist… • to release of the artist’s inner vision • to evoke feelings from the viewer Fauvism: Matisse Die Brucke: Kollwitz and Kirschner Der Blaue Reiter: Vassily Kandinsky
Early 20th Century styles based on SHAPE and FORM: Cubism: Picasso Futurism: Umberto Boccioni Art Deco: Willem Van Allen to show the ‘concept’ of an object rather than creating a detail of the real thing to show different views of an object at once, emphasizing time, space & the Machine age to simplify objects to their most basic, primitive terms
DADA: Duchamp Started as a reaction to the horrors of WWI and Nihilism Began independently in Zurich and NY French for “hobbyhorse”, but the word itself had no meaning Believed that reason and logic had been responsible for war Only hope was anarchy, irrationality, and intuition Pessimism and disgust of the artists helped them reject tradition- Arp pioneered the use of chance in artwork- releassed him from the role of artist For Dadaists, the idea of chance comes from the unconsciousness- influenced by Freud
SURREALISM: Magritte, Dali, Miro, Klee Most Dada artists joined the Surrealist movement as well Included many similar ideas -used Dada techniques to “release the unconscious” Exploration of ways to express in art the world of dreams and the unconscious Inspired by Freud and Jung - interested in the nature of dreams In dreams, people moved beyond the constraints of society Artists’ role: to bring inner and outer reality together
Abstract Expressionism The first truly American visual art form that helped put New York as a cultural capital (perhaps even above Paris). Drawing from Surrealism, they developed the NEW YORK SCHOOL, which comprised action painting, Jazz, abstract expressionism and improvisional theatre. This period of art was special because it was the first to recognize art with NO identifiable subject matter! Jackson Pollock,No. 5, 1948, 1948.
Two Main Categories for Abstract Expressionism: Action Painting: Jackson Pollock Willem de Kooning Color-Field Painting: Mark Rothko Post-Painterly Abstraction: Helen Frankenthaler
Featuring the work of: Jasper Johns Robert Rauschenberg ROY LICHTENSTEIN ANDY WARHOL CLAES OLDENBURG
Pop Art was originally a U.S. and British movement in the 1950s and 60s to react against Abstract Expressionism Abstract ExpressionismFocused on elements rather than objects Pop ArtFocused on recognizable objects
Other Pop Art Influences Fast Food restaurants in the 1950’s turned sandwiches into a mass-produced item Television and Commercials madeordinary objects seem extraordinary! …Pop Art thus creates the beginnings of POSTMODERNISM
Jasper Johns Known for assemblage (‘Junk’) Sculpture Considered himself a ‘Neo-Dadaist’ more than a Pop Artist Jasper Johns,Target With Four Faces, 1955.
Robert Rauschenberg New little about art until he visited an art museum while his was serving in the Navy during WWII. Right after WWII he went to an art institute. Robert Rauschenberg,Untitled, 1954.
Robert Rauschenberg,Monogram, 1955. Robert Rauschenberg,Canyon, 1959.
Andy Warhol(1928-1987) Commercial artist who became known for his silkscreens of celebrities and everyday objects
What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest. You can be watching TV and see Coca Cola, and you know that the President drinks Coca Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca Cola, and just think, you can drink Coca Cola, too. A coke is a coke and no amount of money can get you a better coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking. All the cokes are the same and all the cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it. The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: (From A to B and Back Again), 1975 Andy Warhol,Pete Rose, 1985.
Andy Warhol,Pete Rose, 1985. POP ART
When you see something gruesome over and over, it tends to lose its effect. Andy Warhol Andy Warhol,16 Jackies, 1964.
Andy Warhol,Self Portrait, 1964. POP ART
Andy Warhol,Green Marilyn, 1962. POP ART
Andy Warhol,Mick Jagger, 1975. POP ART
Roy Lichtenstein(1923-1997) Created art with a COMIC-BOOK style Colors are basic, black-outlined Skin colors created with BENDAY DOTS…Just like theCOMIC BOOKS!
Roy Lichtenstein Vincent Van Gogh
Claes Oldenburg(1929-) Known for creating large-scale versions of recognizable objects
Claes Oldenburg Softlight Switches,1963-69. POP ART
Claes Oldenburg, Clothespin, 1976. POP ART
Factors to consider: Gravity Elements Environment Audience Physical Touch by People