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# Relativity and Wormholes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Relativity and Wormholes. By Joaquin P Noyola PHYS 4117 – Learning by Seminar; Spring 2006. Outline. Brief Introduction to Relativity What are wormholes? Several wormhole systems Space Travel, Really? Current Reasearch. Inertial Frames.

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### Relativity and Wormholes

By Joaquin P Noyola

PHYS 4117 – Learning by Seminar; Spring 2006

• Brief Introduction to Relativity

• What are wormholes?

• Several wormhole systems

• Space Travel, Really?

• Current Reasearch

…are coordinate systems which obeyNewton’s laws and are not accelerating.

static (x, y, z) coordinate system

moving (x’, y’, z’) coordinate system

• Time is the fourth dimension and is measure in meters of light travel, not seconds.

• Distance is now measured by the interval

which is invariant from one inertial frame to another.

• The interval is no longer valid due to acceleration, and Δs2 ds2

• We call the resulting equation the metric.

Comparing it to the interval in special relativity

Gravitational fields cause spacetime to bend, creating a potential well

Because of this bending, the object’s “straight-line” trajectory becomes curved to account for the curvature of space.

Even light follows this curved trajectory

http://www.science-art.com/

Forces caused by the difference in a gravitational field from one point to another.

Tidal force = 90g

Ffeet = 100g

www.lwg3d.org

• They are tunnels through spacetime

http://www.astrosurf.org/lombry/Physique/wormhole-alpha-centauri.jpg

• Wormholes are spheres, although represented as 3D tunnels in embedded diagrams.

• They are caused by gravitational forces described by a metric.

• Great variety! static throat, dynamic throat, spinning, not spinning, with little or great tidal forces, etc.

• Wormholes are two-mouth tunnels, but black holes are a one way trip.

http://www.astrosurf.org/lombry/Physique/trounoir-voielactee-mellinger.jpg

It is caused by the bending of light towards the wall of the throat as it passes through the wormhole.

• The Schwartzchild wormhole

• The Morris-Thorne wormhole

• The Visser wormhole

It is actually a Black Hole-Wormhole-White Hole system.

ds2 = - ( 1 - rs / r ) dt2 + ( 1 - rs / r )-1dr2 + r2dΩ2

Where rs = 2 G M / c2

It has tremendous tidal forces in its throat and outside its mouth due to the black hole. The throat is dynamic.

• Huge tidal forces at the mouth, but no horizons.

• Less mass required, but still planet-size chunks.

• Throat is fairly stable compared to the Schwartzschild wormhole

ds2 = - e2Φ(r)dt2 + dr2 + R(r)dΩ2

• Require cutting two similar holes in space-time and sewing the edges together.

• It uses a lot of negative mass, therefore it has smaller tidal forces.

We want to create a traversable and stable wormhole for use in space travel.

http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/wormholes/default.htm

• All wormholes require exotic (negative) matter to keep their throat open.

• It takes to much energy to just open them, leave alone maintain them.

• Fine tuning problems; too much precision needed.

At the moment it is beyond our reach, but there is no telling about whether future generations will do it.

• Mostly theoretical, no significant experimental approach has been taken directly on the subject.

• Exotic matter experiments have shown that this material is obtainable.

• We have not seen wormholes directly, but our known laws of physics do not ban their existence. It is not outrageous to believe they exist.

• Regarding space travel, maybe only future generations will be capable of telling whether it is possible or not.

http://www.zamandayolculuk.com/cetinbal/lighttravel.htm