Ecclesiastical Breakdown By: Kevin Fine, Matthew Freyman, Niharika Kareddy
Papal Doctrines: Pope Innocent III (r.1198-1216) • At a height of papal power, Innocent further developed the pope’s political power. • He established the transformation of the papacy into a secular power and divergence of the papal church from the church of faith.
Further Centralizing of Papal Power Urban IV (r. 1261-1264) • Established the Rota Romana, the law court of the papacy. This centralized the church’s legal proceedings. • In the second half of the thirteenth century, the papacy gained power to determine appointments to many church offices. • Many bishops were angry that the papacy’s power drew the lower clergy’s appeal and control from them. • Fall of imperial sentiment and rise in power of the Vatican led to rulers seeking power in the College of Cardinals. Pope Gregory X established the practice of sequestering the cardinals at the death of the pope so that rulers would not have a say in papal appointments.
Boniface VIII Edward I and Philip the Fair were both ambitious rulers. The pair both taxed the clergy in their respected countries. Pope Boniface VIII saw this taxation as an assault on the church. In response, Boniface issued Clericis laicos on February 5, 1296, which forbade taxation of the clergy without papal approval. Boniface was already under siege by a group of noble Italian families who wished to invalidate his election.
Edward I response Edward I responded to the papal bull by removing the right to be heard in the royal court from the clergy. Edward and his Parliament also opposed Boniface’s championing of Scottish resistance.
Philip’s the Fair’s response Putting Boniface under pressure, Philip forbade all exportation of money from France to Rome cutting off papacy revenues. Later he arrested Bernard Saisset, a powerful bishop who was accused of heresy and treason. Boniface then dismissed his earlier agreements with Philip Philip sent royal apologists Pierre Dubois and John of Paris to refute papal claims in intervention in temporal matters.
Unam Sanctum (1302) - Last ditch effort to against state control of church. -After, force (Guillaume de Nogaret) was used against Boniface, eventually leading to his death.
The Defender of Peace (1324) - Written by Marsilius of Padua. - Put the church in its place and portrayed the origins of secular gov’t.