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  1. Institute for the Promotion of Innovation By Science and Technology in Flanders

  2. BEHAVIOURAL ADDITIONALITYEvaluation Beyond the Linear Innovation Model Research and the Knowledge Based Society – Measuring the Link European Conference on good practices in research evaluation and indicators Galway, May 24 th 2004 Jan Larosse, IWT-Flanders

  3. Behavioural Additionality : Overview • Why Behavioural Additionality? • R&D Subsidies in 'interactive mode' • BA in many dimensions • Traditional vs Behavioural Additionality • IWT practice: 'internalised' additionality • Challenges for evaluation methodoloy

  4. Behavioural Additionality: Why? • 1. Need for 'systemic' evaluations • - Different nature of knowledge as production factor • - Social return= • (Private Return + Spillovers)*Additionality • Additionality: role of governments • Behaviour catches interaction effects in innovation system • 2. Need for ‘bridging’ concept: • Bridging different traditions of evaluation • Micro-foundation of systemic evaluation • - Theory has to catch-up on policy practice

  5. I N N O V A T I O N S Y S T E M Spillovers Sector Cluster Partner home > home > sitemap > sitemap > Firms C L I E N T International and local environment R&D Application Contract Follow-up Project Design Innov. Effect Interaction Budget I W T deze pagina is voorbehouden voor grote schema's Criteria Milestones Government Publicity Input Impact Output : Projects succeeded Policy Objectives. Proces Evaluation Others Research Infrastructure Intermediaries Framework Conditions Complementairy Impacts 5 5 5

  6. home > home > sitemap > sitemap > R&D C L I E N T Application Contract Follow-up Project Design Innov. Effect Firms AwarenessIntake Criteria Milestones Evaluation INTERACTION Budget I W T Impact Government Input Proces Output Projects accomplished Policy Objectives 6 6 6

  7. Behavioural Additionality in many dimensions home > sitemap > 7

  8. Linear model: Input Add. proxy for innovation outcome Behaviour of applicants as 'black box‘ Allocation behaviour as sufficient theoretical foundation) 'Optimality' of allocations as reference Non-linear model Interactivity key to innovation performance Behaviour of applicants is focus Different kinds of behaviour (markets, hierarchies, networks) in innovation system ‘Real world’ as reference Traditional Additionality vs Behavioural Additionality

  9. 6. Focus on evalution of impact on the firm 7. Evaluation of single instruments 8. Impact assessment is main challenge 9. Problem of counterfactual analysis (finding identical control groups) 6. Shift to evaluation of spillovers to the system 7. Evaluation of complementarity of instruments (leverage) 8. Policy learning is main challenge (improving policy design) 9. Problem of comparative analysis (similar situations, never alike) Traditional Additionality vs Behavioural Additionality

  10. 10. Money transfer is central :Redistributive role of government Additionality versus ‘crowding out’ = negative connotation 10. Interaction is central:Catalyser role of governmentAdditionality as ‘value added’= positive connotation Traditional Additionality vs Behavioural Additionality

  11. home > sitemap > 11

  12. home > sitemap > 12

  13. Evaluation of Effectiveness with BA :Beyond the Linear Innovation Model • 1. Traditionalevaluation(linear model) • - Innovaton performance = mechanical result • (output follows input) • - Market failure : government can correct underinvestment by innovating firms • - Input additionality (proxy for output additionality) • 2. Systemicevaluation(interactive model) • - Innovation performance = result of interaction • (mutual adaptation) • - Systemic failures : government as a co-actor • - Behavioural additionality (micro-foundation for systemic evaluation of role government)

  14. Evaluation of Effectiveness with BA :Policy Learning • Is Additionality (still) a useful concept?- ‘making the difference’!- learning versus optimality • What adaptations are needed to evaluation methodologies?- complexity as a solution?- comparative vs counterfactual method? • How to use the evaluation of BA in policy learning- include behaviour of agencies!- policy mix is implied!

  15. Evaluation of Effectiveness with BA :Taking it Further • 1. Research Agenda • - Conceptual clarification • - Measurement as occasion for learning (not only legitimising) • - Comparative research as (international) policy learning • 2. How to organise learning • - Communities of practice of evaluators • - Communication with policy makers • 3. Integration in broader agenda’s • - Oecd-TIP / TAFTIE / EU

  16. Institute for the Promotion of Innovation By Science and Technology in Flanders Bischoffsheimlaan 25 B-1000 Brussels Tel.: +32 (0)2 209 09 00 Fax.: +32 (0)2 223 11 81 E-mail: info@iwt.be www.iwt.be