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  1. Spatio-Temporal Visualization of Environmental & Health Indicators Ravi K. Sharma, PhD Bambang Parmanto, PhD Pei Chen Lee, Ms Conrad Daniel Volz Jr, DrPH University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Public Health University of Pittsburgh

  2. Objective • Demonstration of different ways to visualize spatio-temporal environmental and health indicators using • (1) STIS – Space Time Information System and • (2) ESTAT – Exploratory Spatio-Temporal Analysis Toolkit. • The STIS application is illustrated using data from a study assessing the relationship between PM10 & birth weight. • The ESTAT is illustrated using arsenic, smoking, and lung cancer mortality rates.

  3. STIS – Space Time Information System

  4. Dynamic Data Exploration • STIS provides interactive visualization for your space-time data. • Maps • Box plots • Histograms • Time plots • Parallel coordinate plots • Scatter plots • Moran scatter plots • Variogram clouds

  5. Data used for STIS • Birth data from the Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA • Term singleton live births (gestational age ≥ 37 weeks and birth weight <2500 grams) • Born between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2000 • N = 81,341 term singleton births

  6. Method (Cont.) • Quarterly PM10 air pollution concentrations for each census tract were obtained from RAND’s center for Population Health and Health Disparities Data Core. • PM10 concentrations were calculated by inverse distance weighted method.

  7. STIS SoftwareSpace-Time Information System (STIS)

  8. MapMaternal Race (% African American)

  9. ResultsMaternal Race vs. Mean Birth Weight

  10. Map & Box PlotMaternal Education (% less than high school)

  11. What is a Box Plot?

  12. Map & HistogramSmoking During Pregnancy (%)

  13. Spatial Map% of Family Poverty by Municipality

  14. Spatial Map% of Annual Household Income less than 15,000 by Municipality

  15. Spatio-Temporal MapTerm Low Birth Weight Rate Over Time by Municipality

  16. Spatio-Temporal Clustering Term Low Birth Weight Rate Over Time-Local Moran

  17. Spatio-Temporal MapPM10 First Trimester Exposure by Municipality

  18. Time PlotPM10 First Trimester Exposure-Time Plot

  19. Spatio-Temporal Map of ClustersPM10 First Trimester Exposure-Local Moran

  20. Spatio-Temporal MapPM10 Second Trimester Exposure by Municipality

  21. Time PlotPM10 Second Trimester Exposure-Time Plot

  22. Spatio-Temporal ClustersPM10 Second Trimester Exposure-Local Moran

  23. Spatio-Temporal MapsPM10 Third Trimester Exposure by Municipality

  24. Time PlotPM10 Third Trimester Exposure-Time Plot

  25. Parallel Coordinate PlotPM10 Exposure in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Trimester

  26. Spatio-Temporal ClustersPM10 Third Trimester Exposure-Local Moran

  27. What To Do With Small Numbers?

  28. Smooth Rates – Using Empirical Bayes

  29. Smoothed Mean Birth Weights

  30. Geographically Weighted Regression Coefficient and P-value PM10 and % LBW

  31. Geographically Weighted Regression Coefficient PM10 and % LBW

  32. Geographically Weighted Regression P-value PM10 and % LBW

  33. ESTAT Geovisualization toolkit has been developed by the GeoVISTA Center in close cooperation with users at the National Cancer Institute. The ESTAT toolkit provides user-friendly, open-source software designed to support exploratory geographic visualization. • http://www.geovista.psu.edu/ESTAT/

  34. Internet based SOVAT (Spatial OLAP Visualization and Analytical Tool) The iSOVAT Tool being developed at University of Pittsburgh will have spatiotemporal visualization and rate smoothing functionality