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Distance Education Technologies. Eileen Schroeder October 2002. Model of communication. Distance education is based on the model of communication: Instructional ideas encoded in some transmittable form (spoken word, pictures, writing)

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distance education technologies

Distance Education Technologies

Eileen Schroeder

October 2002

model of communication
Model of communication
  • Distance education is based on the model of communication:
    • Instructional ideas encoded in some transmittable form (spoken word, pictures, writing)
    • Sent to learner over channel (e.g., wire, hand delivered, broadcast over the air)
    • Media allows communication over a distance or at a different time
    • Learner provides feedback on messages (interaction)
    • Minimize and interference in communication - use multiple channels such as auditory, visual, textual
dale s cone of experience
Dale’s Cone of Experience
  • This model categorizes the ability of media to convey information
  • Children respond best to direct, purposeful experiences because they lack previous experiences to refer to whereas older students can handle less realistic and more abstract messages
  • When new information is presented, it is best to be as realistic as possible
  • But more realistic is less efficient in terms of uses of resources and may be less effective due to distractions of realistic instruction
  • Must determine how to be only as realistic as needed to learn effectively
taxonomy of technologies
Taxonomy of Technologies
  • Different time, different place, limited interaction:
    • Correspondence courses
      • Uses mail system (snail mail or email) to connect teacher and learner asynchronously
      • Learner receives lessons, readings, and assignments, completes independently, sends in for grading
    • Prerecorded media
      • Pictures and graphics, audiotapes, videotapes sent to distance learners with correspondence study guide
taxonomy of technologies1
Taxonomy of Technologies
  • Same time, different place, some interaction
    • Two-way audio (with and without graphics)
      • Phone or radio with telephone call-in, or short wave -- live
      • Added graphics- electronic drawing board or computer
    • One-way live audio
      • Often accompanied by packets of printed materials
      • May have telephone office hours but generally just complete assignments
    • Two-way audio, one-way video
      • ITFS or community cable networks or teleconferences (satellite)
      • Connect synchronously to many locations
      • Toll-free phone number and packet of materials
taxonomy of newer technologies
Taxonomy of Newer Technologies
  • Different place, same time:
    • Two-way audio/video
      • Compressed video (fewer than 30 fps, over T1 line) OR uncompressed, full motion (uses fiber optics - DS3)
      • Special classroom - audio and video equipment with CODEC at each site -- expensive, cumbersome
      • Generally school districts belong to a distance education network and share courses with other schools in that network
      • Need to reserve special rooms and network time
a typical distance education classroom
A typical distance education classroom
  • University of Wisconsin- Whitewater
  • Compressed video using PictureTel system
  • Connects with other UW System campuses
  • Used for
    • Entire courses
    • Individual classes
    • Meetings
    • Professional development
taxonomy of newer technologies1
Taxonomy of Newer Technologies
  • Different place, same time:
    • Desktop two-way audio/video
      • Use personal computers
      • Can use reflector sites to connect multiple sites
      • Free or inexpensive: CUSeeMe -- low quality
      • Need camera with each computer
      • Over 56K modem - only low speed is possible, poor quality
      • Transmitting at 126K or 256K (ISDN) - medium speed, uses compression
      • Over Internet: limited ability to carry high quality video, will change as bandwidth increases
taxonomy of newer technologies2
Taxonomy of Newer Technologies
  • Different time, different place
    • Computer-mediated without audio or video
      • Could incorporate chat to make it synchronous
      • Asynchronous discussions, email, course content, student assignments, testing, multimedia resources, track student progress
      • Course management software
        • WebCT
        • BlackBoard
        • BigChalk
      • Some entire virtual schools have begun to appear
virtual schools
Virtual Schools
  • Kentucky Virtual High School (see virtual library)
    • http://www.kvhs.org/
  • Florida Virtual School
    • http://www.flvs.net/
  • Wisconsin Connections Academy (Appleton)
    • http://www.connectionsacademy.org/wi/about/default.asp
  • Maryland Virtual High School (science & math)
    • http://mvhs1.mbhs.edu/
  • Choice 2000 Charter School
    • http://www.choice2000.org/
more information
More Information
  • Online Teaching and Learning
    • www.ion.illinois.edu/resources/olo/index.html
  • Distance Education Clearinghouse
    • http://www.uwex.edu/disted/home.html
  • Distance-Educator.com
    • http://www.distance-educator.com/