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CHAPTER 7 . Crisis and Absolutism in Europe. Chapter 7, Section 1 Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion. French Wars of Religion. Calvinists vs. Christians What were they doing? Aggressively trying to win converts and eliminate each others authority. Two Groups: Huguenots

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chapter 7


Crisis and Absolutism in Europe


Chapter 7, Section 1

Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion

french wars of religion
French Wars of Religion
  • Calvinists vs. Christians
  • What were they doing?
    • Aggressively trying to win converts and eliminate each others authority

Two Groups:

    • Huguenots
      • Who are they?
        • French Protestants influenced by John Calvin
          • Usually nobles – higher class
          • Powerful threat to the crown
            • Why?
              • Made up of the powerful and rich who have a huge influence
      • Problem for the Huguenots:
        • Catholics still outnumbered them


    • Who are they?
      • Catholic extreme group
      • Strongly disliked the Huguenots

Huguenots and Catholics were at war

    • Henry IV becomes King and gives up Protestantism for Catholicism
      • He declares that Huguenots can live in Paris peacefully and have their own houses of worship. This is known as the Edict of Nantes signed in 1598
          • Catholicism was seen as the French religion and Huguenots still had the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges

Many loved the idea of peace but some hated Henry for his compromises of religion

  • He was assassinated in 1610
spain phillip ii and militant catholicism
Spain: Phillip II and Militant Catholicism
  • Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor, inherited Spain, Spain’s American colonies, parts of Italy and lands in Austria and the Netherlands
    • Charles V divided his empire in 1556 and gave his son, Philip II, Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies
    • Philip II would go on to be the most powerful ruler in Europe

Ushered in an age of Spanish greatness both politically and culturally

    • In 1580, Philip seized the Portuguese kingdom, which had strong holds in Africa, India and East Indies

Who and how did he unite everyone politically and culturally?

    • Who:
      • Spain
      • Netherlands
      • Americas
      • Possessions in Italy
    • How:
      • Had to be Catholic
      • Had to follow the monarchy

Problem in the Netherlands

    • Spain = Catholic

Dutch = Calvinists

    • Philip raised taxes in Spanish Netherlands and tried to destroy the Protestants by taking away their privileges

Problem in 1566

      • Calvinists destroy Catholic statues in churches
      • What social class did this? Nobles
    • What did Philip do? Sent thousands of troops over to crush the rebellion
  • The Dutch fought back, declared their independence from Spain

When King Philip ended his reign in 1598 Spain had the largest population in the world

    • Seen as the greatest power of the age
      • Was this really the case? Was Spain the greatest and the most prosperous?
        • NO
          • Treasury was empty
          • Philip spent too much money on the wars = bankrupt
          • Armed forces were out of date
          • Inefficient government
2 goals of elizabeth
2 Goals of Elizabeth:



  • During her reign, England became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe and laid the foundation for a world empire
  • She got rid of many of the laws that favored Catholicism set by her half-sister, Mary
  • Elizabeth created an Act of Supremacy and named herself the “only supreme governor” of both the church and state
    • The Church of England under her remained mostly Protestant
  • Felt that war would be disastrous for England
  • She wanted to keep Spain and France from being too powerful
    • How did she do this?
      • She would support the weaker of the 2 countries
        • Ex: If Spain was becoming too powerful she would support France and vice versa
  • Plunder Spanish ships
    • Sir Francis Drake would plunder Spanish ships sailing the Caribbean

Problems with Spain

    • Philip II always wanted to take over England
      • 2 reasons
        • Power and influence
        • Restate Catholicism as the religion over Protestantism
problems with spain
Problems with Spain:
  • Philip II always wanted to take over England
    • 2 reasons
      • Power and influence
      • Restate Catholicism as the religion over Protestantism

What did he do?

    • 1588 - Created an armada
      • What is an armada?Fleet of warships
    • Problems with Philip’s Plan?
      • Didn’t have the manpower
      • Didn’t have the ships that would compare to England


Second Great Seal

  • Who won?
    • The English
        • It was a very unsuccessful attack for the Spanish
        • Very successful for Elizabeth – raising her approval, prestige, and power- and humiliating Philip II
historical tweets
Historical TWEETS
  • You will create a total of TWO historical tweets about TWO of the following absolute rulers:
    • Henry IV (a.k.a. Henry of Navarre)
    • Charles V
    • King Phillip II
    • Queen Elizabeth I
    • Your tweets must be about a significant event in the ruler’s reign.
    • Remember that a tweet is short and to the point.
    • An example would be:
  • See @KingPhillipIIgirls really can rule land AND sea.

Ch. 7-Sect. 2

Social Crises, War, and Revolution

is there honor in the honor code
Is There Honor In The Honor Code?
  • On your half sheet, please answer the Pre-Reading Question.
  • As I am reading the situation, please answer the Reflection On Reading section questions.
  • We will discuss this as a class.
    • Remember to hand in your reading

From 1560 to 1650 Europe witnessed severe economic and social crisis

  • One major problem they faced was inflation
    • What is it?
      • Rising prices

What caused this?

    • The great influx of gold and silver from the Americas was one factor
    • Growing population in the 16th century increased the demand of land and food and drove up prices for both
    • Mines were producing less silver
    • Fleets were being pirated
    • Tradewas declining as well

Populations were increasing at 1600s – then began to falter in the 1650s

    • Why?
      • Warfare
      • Plague
      • Famine
    • Problem?
      • Caused more social tensions between the people
      • Loss of population led to a loss of specialized goods and crafts which led to the falling of the economy

What is witchcraft?

    • The practice of magic by people supposedly in league with the devil
  • Where did it take place?
    • Villages in Europe
  • What was the problem?
    • During the Inquisition they hunted for heretics now added witchcraft because it was seen as a devil religion
the process of the inquisition activity
The Process of the Inquisition Activity
  • Get into groups of 4 (no groups over 4 members)
    • Take your half sheet with you!
  • Complete the half sheet using the information on the cards in your group.
  • You will have less than 10 min. to complete this activity

Who were the victims?

    • Common people
    • Poor
    • No property
    • Women
    • Single
    • Widowed
    • Over the age of 50
return to the honor code
Return to “The Honor Code”
  • I need 3 hard workers
  • As I give you your task sheets, be conscious of what I am asking you to do (READ carefully!)
  • You will only have 5 min. to prepare your first task
the investigation
The Investigation
  • The Administration will question each accused student
    • The interview will last 2 min.
    • Students- You do not have much time to make your case
    • Amin.- You do not have much time to question your suspect
  • The students will have a few seconds at the end of the round of questioning to make any final statements
    • Admin. & Students- You should take notes during the trial so you can prepare a closing statement
activity breakdown discussion
Activity Breakdown Discussion
  • What was your overall experience with the investigation: Positive? Negative?
  • Was justice done in any of the cases?
  • Did the accused students provided decent defenses for themselves?
  • Do you think the Administration had preconceived notions about the students before going into the investigation?
    • Do you think these influenced the trial?

What did they confess to doing?

    • Sworn allegiance to the devil
    • Attended nightly ceremonies
    • Used evil spells
    • Putting spells on their neighbors
      • Why did they confess?
        • They were being tortured

By the 1650s the hysteria had slowed down

  • Governments no longer wanted to deal with the trials (they were expensive and no one cared anymore)
s s 2 february 16th
S.S. 2: February, 16th
  • On your desk:
    • Absolutism Notes (Ch. 7)
    • Be sure to review your notes each night!!
    • Bellringer:
    • Please define the following terms:
      • Terrorist
      • freedom fighter
thirty years war
Thirty Years War
  • Peace of Augsburg caused many problems with the Calvinists
  • What was the Peace of Augsburg?
  • Allowed German princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the lands they controlled
  • Why is there a problem?
    • The Calvinism had not been recognized in the settlements yet

War Duration(Years):

    • 1618-1648
  • Who did it involve?
    • Hapsburg Holy Roman emperors – Catholic
    • Bohemian nobles - Protestants (Calvinists)
      • Rebelled against the Catholic authority

Where was it fought in Europe?

    • Germany
      • But all of Europe was fighting at one time except for England
  • Which country suffered the most?
    • Germany
  • Why?
    • That’s where all the fighting was concentrated
  • What ended the war?
    • The Peace of Westphalia– German states including Calvinists ones could determine their own religion, recognized as independent states because each received power to conduct its own foreign policy
revolutions in england
Revolutions in England
  • During the 17th century there were made rebellions and civil problems
  • The largest in England was the English Revolution
  • How did it start?
    • Struggle between the king and Parliament to determine who had the most power

Elizabeth I died in 1603 and brought the Tudor line to an end

  • The Stuarts picked up the legacy – they were related to the Tudors (cousins to Elizabeth)

James I took over England

    • Problems:
      • James believed in theDivine Right of Kings
        • The king ruled all and the Parliament had no say in the behavior
    • James was a Protestant and even harsher on the Catholics than Elizabeth
      • The Catholics have had just about enough
the gunpowder plot
The Gunpowder Plot
  • The failed plot to assassinate James I and the Protestant Parliament
  • This act would taint English Catholics with treason for centuries to come
  • Why is this act significant:
    • Showed how upset an English minority was with their king and the parliament
gunpowder plot terrorism or freedom fighting
Gunpowder Plot: Terrorism OR Freedom Fighting
  • Introduction- Rundown as to what the “plot” is
  • Article Summary- The Gunpowder Plot
  • The Gunpowder Plot Video Clips: (create six squares on the back of your discussion web—write the following questions in each box)
    • Act of Uniformity-Why were the Catholics upset with the laws of the time?
    • The 5 Conspirators-Who were the conspirators involved? What was their purpose?
    • A Simple Plan-What was the conspirators’ plan?
    • Sourcing the Gunpowder-How close did the conspirators come to blowing up Parliament?
    • Disaster Averted -How was disaster averted?
    • Treason and Torture –After the plot fails, what happens to the conspirators involved?
  • Graphic Organizer- Terrorist or Freedom Fighter
legacy of james i
Legacy of James I
  • After the gunpowder plot, James tried to control the Catholics even more
  • For all his flaws, James had never completely lost the affection of his people
  • James’ successor held a fatal belief in the divine right of kings and a disdain for Parliament, which will start the English Civil War
  • Under James the English colonized  North America 
    • In 1607,Jamestown was founded in Virginia

Charles and Parliament hate each other and constantly try to limit the power of the other

    • Parliament passed a law which prohibited the king from passing any taxeswithout their consent
  • Charles wanted everyone to becomeCatholic
    • Parliament is filled with Protestants
    • With that thousands ofPuritansleft for theAmerica
  • Charles wanted to imprison Parliament, instead a revolt in sues
the english civil war
The English Civil War
  • The Civil War started in 1642
    • Fought between the Cavaliers who supported the king and the Roundheads who supported the Parliament
      • Who won?
        • Roundheads
      • Why?
        • Oliver Cromwelltook over and created the New Model Army made up of extreme Puritans who are known as the Independents who believed they were doing battle for God

Why/How was he successful?

    • He got rid of all of the Parliament members who did not support the Roundheads
      • These non-supporters were called the Rump Party
    • Cromwell executed Charles I in 1649
      • This action was important because it sent a message to Europe
        • With the execution, Parliament got rid of the monarchy and declared England a commonwealth
          • A commonwealth is a republic
the restoration
The Restoration
  • Cromwell died in 1658
    • Within a year Parliament took over and restored the monarchy to Charles II
oliver cromwell and the english civil war
Oliver Cromwell and the English Civil War

Taken from BBC: Monarchy with David Starkey

  • Background
  • Cromwell is Victorious
  • Life After the King is Beheaded
  • Lord Protector Cromwell

Signs Habeas Corpus – document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court or judge so they can decide whether imprisonment is legal

  • Charles II was sympathetic to Catholicism and his brother James II was a proud Catholic and heir to the throne
      • Why is that a problem?
        • Parliament was still wary about having a proud Catholic as a king and wanted to pass the Exclusion Bill which would barred James from the throne because he was a devout Catholic

Huge debate between the 2 groups

    • Whigs – exclude James
    • Tories – did not want to interfere with the principle law of succession to the throne
    • Charles died in 1685 and James II became king – gave Catholics high position in the government, army, navy, and universities

Parliament did not fight with James II – why?

    • He was old and his daughters Mary and Anne were both protestant (1st wife)
      • Problem:1688 he had a son with his 2nd wife who was a Catholic
a glorious revolution
A Glorious Revolution
  • A group of English noblemen asked Mary and William of Orange – leader of the Dutch to invade England
  • 1688 they “invaded” England

James, his wife, and their son all fled to France

    • Why was it called a “Glorious Revolution?”
      • There was no blood spilled at all

Parliament gave the monarch over to William and Mary but only if they would sign The English Bill of Rights

    • What did it give Parliament:
      • Parliament’s rights to makes laws and levy taxes
      • Standing armies could only be raised with the Parliament’s consent
      • Citizens could keep arms
      • Right to ajury trial
        • Impossible for a king to do anything without the aid of Parliament
    • Based on the Rule of Law and the freely elected Parliament
        • Foundation was based for a constitutional monarchy

Also passed the Toleration Act of 1689 – Granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free public worship

    • Basically stopped the religious persecutions
    • Destroyed the divine right theory because Parliament dethroned a king and created another

Cabinet- group of ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions

    • Link between the ruler and parliament
      • Leader of the majority party in parliament heads the cabinet and is known as the Prime Minister
flash forward bridging the gap
Flash Forward: Bridging the Gap
  • US would adopt many of England’s ideas during the 17th century including:
    • Habeas Corpus
    • Bill of Rights
    • Cabinet
    • Strong legislature and strong executive branches, along with 2 dominant political parties


Response to Crisis: Absolutism


To make the monarch more stable, they needed to increase the power of the monarch in the 17th Century

  • Created the idea of Absolutism
  • What is Absolutism?
    • A system in which the ruler holds total power
      • Tied to the divine right of kings
    • The reign of Louis XIV was a prime example of absolutism

50 years before the reign of Louis in France the government was a mess

  • Both Louis XIII and Louis XIV (4 years old) were both boys when they came to the throne
  • 2 ministers that played a major role in preserving the monarchy:
cardinal richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
  • Louis XIII’s chief minister
    • What did he do?
      • Took away the political and military rights of theHuguenots, but still passed on the religious rights
      • Tamed nobles who were conspiring against those in power
      • Stopped conspirators by executing them
  • Louis XIV chief minister
    • What did he do?
      • Stopped a revolt held by nobles who were unhappy with the power the monarch had

Importance: These 2 men proved to the French that the best chance of having a stable government was to give power to the monarchy


At the age of 23 and after the death of Cardinal Mazarin Louis became king

  • He quit playing around and matured
  • He created a strict and serious routine from which he hardly ever moved from
government and religion
Government and Religion
  • Louis was the key to policymaking – Created the Royal Court at Versailles
    • Served 3 purposes
      • Personal household of the king
      • Chief offices of the state were held
      • He could watch over them

Also had a Royal Council

    • Chief administrative body of the king
    • Supervised the government

He used religion keep the country united

  • What position did he take?
    • Anti-protestant position, he wanted the Huguenots to accept Catholicism
      • When he 1st took the throne he destroyed Huguenot churches and destroyed their schools – roughly 2,000 fled to England, the United States, and German States
  • Dealing with the building of palaces, fighting wars, and maintaining his courts Louis needed money
    • How was he going to get it?
      • Increase hisexportsand decrease hisimports
      • Grantedsubsidiesto new businesses
      • Built bettercanalsandroads
      • Raised tariffs onforeigngoods
  • Louis wanted a strong and powerful military
    • How did he get it?
      • Created wars with other countries
        • Fought 4 wars between 1667 & 1713
    • What did he get from the wars?
      • Added some territory to the Northwest of France
      • Had a member of his own dynasty on the throne of Spain
  • What did he leave France with when he died in 1715 at the age of 76?
    • Huge debt
    • Surrounded by enemies
  • Why?
    • Wars and too great of an ambition
describe the lifestyle of louis xiv
Describe the lifestyle of Louis XIV.
  • What was his childhood like?
  • Where did he live?
  • What were his policies?
  • What were his fears?
let s compare
Let’s Compare…….

Sun King vs. Lion King

absolutism in central and eastern europe
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
  • After the Thirty Years War there were many German States, but not one united Germany
  • Why?
    • 2 major states Prussia and Austria became huge empires in the 17th & 18th centuries

One of the best educated and most cultured monarchs in the 18th century

    • Well versed in Enlightenment
      • A believer in the king as the “first servant of the state”
    • Attempted to make enlightened reforms
      • Abolished the use of torture except in cases of treason or murder
      • Granted limited power of government
      • Freedom of press
      • Complete religious toleration
  • He built a strong and efficient army

How did he pay for this?

    • General War Commissariat which would:
      • Levy taxes and oversee the growth of the army
        • Eventually he used this to govern the state
          • Who were the Junkers?
            • The rich men who served Frederick and the army – members of the Commissariat

Created by the Hapsburgs after the fall of the German Empire

  • Land it encompassed:
    • Present day Austria, part of Hungary, and Czech Republic
      • Later in 1687 they took over the rest of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia


    • Never became centralized, absolutist state
      • Why?
        • Made up of so many different national groups
          • Collection of territories held together by the Hapsburg military and politics

Who were the Hapsburgs?

    • Archduke of Austria
    • King of Bohemia
    • King of Hungary
      • Problem: Each had their own laws and political life

Struggled for power with the boyers– land owning nobles

  • Crowned himself Czar (Ceasar, king)
    • From 1533, he won many victories’, added lands to Russia, gave Russia a code of laws and ruled justly

After his wife died, things got ugly:

    • Organized a police force that hunted down and killed potential traitors
    • Killed many boyers, their families and peasants
    • In 1581, Ivan the Terrible stabbed his oldest son, and heir to the throne, to death in an argument
    • He died 3 years later, leaving his second and weak son to rule
    • This would give rise to the Romanovs

The Time of Troubles took out Ivan in 1598

  • The national assembly chose Michael Romanov as the new czar

Peter the Great was part of the Romanov Dynasty and an absolute monarch

  • His goal:
    • He wanted Russia to be more westernized
      • Pushed to improve the military technology of Russia
      • With his death in 1725 Russia was one of the main military powers in Russia

First goal:

    • Reorganize thearmy
    • He added bothRussianandEuropeanofficers
    • Draftedpeasantsto be in the army for 25 years

Second goal:

    • Centralizethe government
    • Divided Russia intoprovincesand had people in charge to carry out his laws
    • Hisadministratorsfeared him and basically became his slaves
      • Was it successful?
        • NO, the people feared and resented him

He wanted Russia to be more westernized

    • How de he do this?
      • Created a book of etiquette
      • Made men shave their beards and shorten their coats
      • Upper-class women could remove their veils in public
      • Mixing of genders - ceremonies, galas, etc.

Took over this territory fromSwedenin theGreat Northern War

  • Known as the“Open a window to the West”
  • Created a port town to that had ready access to Europe

Where was it located?

    • On the Baltic Sea
      • Problem – it was owned by Sweden
      • Solution – Fight and take the land
        • Began to create the city in 1703 and it remained the Russian capital until 1918


The World of European Culture

  • The artistic Renaissance came to an end when the a new movement called Mannerism, merged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s
    • Define Mannerism-???
  • In Italy the enthusiasm of the renaissance declined, because people wanted and wished for a spiritual experience.


  • Mannerism in art reflected this new idea and took away the ideas of the High Renaissance which were:
    • Balance
    • Harmony
    • Moderation
  • Instead Mannerism replaced them with the ideas of:
    • Disproportion
    • Suffering
    • Heighted emotion
    • Religious ecstasy
el greco
El Greco
  • Where was El Greco from? Crete
  • What does his name mean?The Greek
  • What did his mood reflect in his art?
    • Tensions created by the religious upheavals of the Reformation
the baroque period
The Baroque Period
  • Mannerism was eventually replaced by the Baroque movement
  • This movement began in Italy in the last quarter of the 16thcentury and spread to the rest of Europe and even Latin America
  • What reform movement wholeheartedly adopted the Baroque style?
    • Catholic

Baroque artists tried to bring together the classical ideals of the Renaissance with the spiritual feelings on the 16th century revival

  • The baroque style was known to for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions
    • Why did Kings and princes use the baroque style?
      • Wanted all to be overwhelmed by the beauty and power
art critique books
Art Critique Books
  • You must have them complete and illustrated BEFORE you leave today!
the golden age of literature
The Golden Age of Literature
  • English Literature
  • When did writing hit a new height in both Spain and England?
    • 1580-1640

Between the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries this time period in England was called the Elizabethan Era

    • Why is it called this era?
      • So much of it fell within the time period of Elizabeth’s reign
  • Who was the most famous dramatists of this time period in England?
    • Shakespeare

Stage was already very popular in England before Shakespeare came to the stage in 1592

  • Stages ranged from the Globe which had an open circular, unroofed structure that could hold up to 3,000 people to that of the Blackfriars which were roofed structures that only held around 500 people.
    • The Globe allowed all classes to watch because they only charged around one or two pennies for admission
    • The Blackfriars welcomed the upper class because they charged higher prices

True or False?

    • Playwrights had to write many different types of plays to accommodate the different types of audiences
  • Shakespeare was seen as being a universal genius, because he could show a remarkable understanding of the human condition
spanish literature
Spanish Literature
  • Where were the first professional theaters formed?
    • Seville & Madrid
  • Who set the standard for playwrights in Spain around the 1580s?
    • Lope de Vega
  • Out of his 1,500 plays, 500 survived
  • Lope de Vega wrote plays to please his audience and gave the people what they wanted

Who wrote Don Quixote?

    • Miguel de Cervantes
  • He portrayed the dual nature of the Spanish character:
    • The knight – is a visionary so involved in his own life that he does not see the harsh realities around him
    • The squire – is a realist
      • In the end each comes to the value of others perspective. The book shows that both visionary dreams and the hard work of the reality are necessary for the human condition
political thought
Political Thought
  • Thomas Hobbes was alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in England
  • He wrote the book, Leviathan and it was published in 1651
    • What is this book about?
      • A work on political thought – try to deal with the problem of disorder

Hobbes felt that before society was organized it was, “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Humans were guided not by reason and moral ideals but by a ruthless struggle for self-preservation.


What did the people have to do to save themselves from destroying one another?

      • Make asocial contractand agreed to a form ofstate
      • People in the state would agreed to be governed by an absolute ruler who had unlimited power
      • Rebellion must be suppressed
  • Overall idea: Hobbes felt that absolute power was needed to preserve order in society

Differed from Hobbes:

    • He argued against the absolute rule of one person
    • Before society was organized, humans lived in a state of equality and freedom, rather than a state of war
    • In this state humans of nature have certain natural rights.
      • Define Natural Rights:???
        • What 3 rights are included?
          • Life
          • Liberty
          • Property

Agreed with Hobbes:

    • Problems did exist within nature
    • Difficult to protect their natural rights, therefore you have to establish a government to ensure the protection of their rights
      • The contract is between what 2 groups?
        • People and the government
      • What did the 2 groups have to do?
        • Government was responsible to keep the people safe
        • The People were to follow the rules kept by the government
      • What would happen if the government broke the contract?
        • Overthrow – find a new monarch
      • Who were people to Locke?
        • Those who held land

Locke was not an advocate for democracy, but his ideas proved important to both Americans and the French in the 18th century.

    • What were his ideas used to support?
      • Demands for a constitutional government
      • Rule of law
      • Protection of rights

What 2 American documents can his ideas be found?

    • Constitution
    • Declaration of Independence
  • Complete Say Something! Activity
    • Philosophies of Hobbes and Locke
  • Natural Rights Activity
  • Finish Word Splash!
universal declaration of human rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The General Assembly

United Nations

December 10, 1948


1. Everyone is free and we should all be treated in the same way.

2. Everyone is equal despite differences in skin colour, sex, religion, language for example.

3. Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety.

4. No one has the right to treat you as a slave nor should you make anyone your slave.

5. No one has the right to hurt you or to torture you.


6. Everyone has the right to be treated equally by the law.

7. The law is the same for everyone, it should be applied in the same way to all.

8. Everyone has the right to ask for legal help when their rights are not respected.

9. No one has the right to imprison you unjustly or expel you from your own country.

10. Everyone has the right to a fair and public trial.


11. Everyone should be considered innocent until guilt is proved.

12. Everyone has the right to ask for help if someone tries to harm you, but no-one can enter your home, open your letters or bother you or your family without a good reason.

13. Everyone has the right to travel as they wish.

14. Everyone has the right to go to another country and ask for protection if they are being persecuted or are in danger of being persecuted.

15. Everyone has the right to belong to a country. No one has the right to prevent you from belonging to another country if you wish to.


16. Everyone has the right to marry and have a family.

17. Everyone has the right to own property and possessions.

18. Everyone has the right to practice and observe all aspects of their own religion and change their religion if they want to.

19. Everyone has the right to say what they think and to give and receive information.

20. Everyone has the right to take part in meetings and to join associations in a peaceful way.


21. Everyone has the right to help choose and take part in the government of their country.

22. Everyone has the right to social security and to opportunities to develop their skills.

23. Everyone has the right to work for a fair wage in a safe environment and to join a trade union.

24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure.

25. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living and medical help if they are ill.


26. Everyone has the right to go to school.

27. Everyone has the right to share in their community's cultural life.

28. Everyone must respect the 'social order' that is necessary for all these rights to be available.

29. Everyone must respect the rights of others, the community and public property.

30. No one has the right to take away any of the rights in this declaration.