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The Causes of World War I. 1900-1914. Early Alliances. 1871 Germany won Alsace-Lorraine from France in the Franc0-Prussian War Two early alliances: Germany, Austria, Russia originally, but it will soon fall apart (Three Emperors League) Germany, Austria, Italy | The Triple Alliance

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early alliances
Early Alliances
  • 1871 Germany won Alsace-Lorraine from France in the Franc0-Prussian War
  • Two early alliances: Germany, Austria, Russia originally, but it will soon fall apart (Three Emperors League)
  • Germany, Austria, Italy | The Triple Alliance
    • On your map color the Triple Alliance members RED
the balkans
The Balkans
  • Turkey had ruled this area for centuries, but couldn’t hold on to all the areas where ethnic minorities were getting anxious to be independent
  • Serbia was the biggest threat—in 1903 the new leader became aggressively and public anti-Austria-Hungary.
    • An anti-Austrian terrorist group named the Black Hand was active in Serbia and the government did nothing to stop it.
the balkans1
The Balkans
  • Ethnic identities were not physical—they all looked the same. They were based on language, culture, and religion—Roman Catholics, Orthodox Catholics, and Muslims
  • Shade in theBalkans on yourmap
quiz time
Quiz Time!
  • 1. What piece of land did Germany win in the Franco-Prussian war?
    • A. Belgium
    • B. Alsace-Lorraine
    • C. Serbia
    • D. Bosnia
quiz time1
Quiz Time!
  • 2. Which countries made up the Triple Alliance?
    • A. Germany, Austria, France
    • B. Russia, Germany, Italy
    • C. Germany, Austria, Italy
    • D. Great Britain, Austria, Germany
quiz time2
Quiz Time!
  • 3. What country came to be called The Sick Man of Europe?
    • A. Turkey/Ottoman Empire
    • B. Germany
    • C. Austria
    • D. France
dragging britain into it
Dragging Britain into it…
  • Since Austria and Russia were busy fighting over the Balkans, Germany had to pick a friend—decided on Austria (closer in language and culture)
  • Russia decided to ally with France in 1894—if war started, Germany would have enemies on both sides, called a Two Front War
  • Germany tried to bring Britain into an alliance so France and Russia would leave Germany alone
  • Method? Threats. Build the German navyand scare Britain who ruled the seas
  • Germany would like “A Place in the Sun”—an empire like Britain’s
with a partner
With a partner:
  • Answer the following questions:
    • Why did Germany want Great Britain as an ally? Why was Britain so popular at this time?
    • With the map colored the way it is, and with tensions in the Balkans, what should Austria do to prevent war? Is that even possible? What could ease tensions with Russia?
the schlieffen plan
The Schlieffen Plan
  • 1905: France, Britain, and Russia are allied; Germany, Austria, and Italy are allied
  • Germany makes the Schlieffen Plan— “to move like lightening”
    • 1. Defeat the French by sending an army through Belgium
    • 2. Unleash the whole German army on Russia
    • 3. Hopefully avoid fighting on two fronts at once
britain everyone wants to be bffs
Britain: everyone wants to be bffs
  • Instead of join Germany, Britain joins an alliance with France called the Entente Cordiale
  • This means France is now allied with both Russia and Britain
  • On your map: Label Britain, France, Russia, Austria, Italy, and Germany. Color the first three BLUE, and the Triple Alliance Red.
the entente cordiale
The Entente Cordiale
  • Agreements included: Britain gets to controlEgypt(Suez Canal access) – previously France had controlled it
  • France gets to control Morocco, tries in 1905
  • Germany interfered in this exchange and went to Morocco in 1905 promising to defend them against the French
  • Germany banked on the fact that Russia had just lost to Japan in the Russo-Japanese war and would leave them alone
  • But Britain was strong and held the Algeciras Conference1906, decided to ignore Germany’s concerns and humiliate them
  • The Entente Cordiale was strengthened
quiz time3
Quiz Time!
  • 4. Who are the members of the Entente Cordiale?
    • A. Britain and France
    • B. Britain, France, Russia
    • C. Germany and Britain
    • D. Britain and Russia
quiz time4
Quiz Time!
  • 5. Which of the following is NOT part of Germany’s Schlieffen Plan?
    • A. Attack France through Belgium
    • B. Attack Italy
    • C. Avoid a two front war
    • D. Attack Russia after France is defeated
quiz time5
Quiz Time!
  • 6. Which of the following is NOT one of the agreements of the Entente Cordiale?
    • A. Britain gets Egypt
    • B. France gets Morocco
    • C. Russia gets Serbia
    • D. Britain will defend France
growing tension
Growing Tension…
  • 1906, Britain launched the Dreadnought, a new battleship trying to best Germany’s newest
  • 1907, Britain allies with Russia, officially creating the Triple Entente, an alliance that rivals the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy
  • The Kaiser of Germany went to Britain to smooth things over but in an interview in the Daily Telegraph he embarrassed himself and made tensions worse by calling the British “Mad as March Hares”
the bosnian crisis
The Bosnian Crisis
  • Germany relied heavily on Austria for support
  • In 1908 Austria seized control of Bosnia, a country in the Balkans (see your map)
  • Because of how this angered Russia, there was a very close call at the start of war in 1908
  • Kaiser of Germany gave Austria a blank cheque, promising full support no matter what
  • Russia, still weak from the Russo-Japanese war, backed down
with your partner answer
With your partner, answer:
  • How did the alliance system increase tensions in Europe at this point? Give evidence in your answer.
tensions increase 1908 1914
Tensions increase 1908-1914
  • 1911 Germany and France again clash over Morocco; Germany sent the gunboat Panther; Britain again sided with France and Germany backed down
  • 1912 Russia and Austria again clash over the Balkans
    • Austria was determined to crush Serbia, which had become very nationalistic, hated Austria
    • There was a large Slavic group in Austria that threatened to revolt, and were ethnically similar to Serbian Slavs
    • Preventing a strong Serbia was crucial to Austrian security
    • Germany said Austria had their full backing if they wanted to attack Serbia
the spark
The Spark
  • June 28, 1914, a Serbian terrorist group called Black Hand assassinated the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Bosnia.
  • Austria had taken Bosnia in 1908 and angered Serbs living there, so this was revenge
  • July 23, 1914, Austria gave Serbia an ultimatum—requiring Serbia to squash anti-Austrian activities, punish guilty people, basically submit to Austria
  • They pretended to accept all but one measure, so ultimately rejected the ultimatum
  • July 28th, 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia
july crisis 1914
July Crisis 1914
  • July 29: Austria bombs Serbia
    • Germany was an ally of Austria, and Russia was an ally of Serbia… war was imminent.
  • July 30: Russia started mobilizing her army.
    • Germany and Russia exchange the Willy-Nicky Telegrams… doesn’t work
  • July 31: Germany asks nicely for Russia to demobilize; Russia said only Austria is threatened. Germany asks France not to get involved. (France ignores the message.) Germany and France ask Britain whose side she’s on… she ignores them all.
july crisis 19141
July Crisis 1914
  • August 1st: Germany declares war on Russia
  • August 3rd: Germany declares war on France; Britain promises to protect Belgium, a neutral nation—remember the Schlieffen plan said Germany would first attack France through Belgium
  • Germany marches into Belgium
  • August 4th: Britain declares war on Germany
    • World War I has begun.