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Oracle Database on Windows: Best Practices and Future Directions. Alex Keh Principal Product Manager, Server Technologies, Oracle. Agenda. Supported Operating Systems Oracle Database 11g: New Features Database Architecture Best Practices for 32-bit Windows Active Directory.

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oracle database on windows best practices and future directions

Oracle Database on Windows: Best Practices and Future Directions

Alex Keh

Principal Product Manager, Server Technologies, Oracle

  • Supported Operating Systems
  • Oracle Database 11g: New Features
  • Database Architecture
  • Best Practices for 32-bit Windows
  • Active Directory
best price performance on windows
Best Price/Performance on Windows
  • #1 TPC-C Price/Performance amongst all platforms
    • Oracle Database 11g on Windows
  • …And Oracle has the #1 TPC-C Performance also

TPC-C by Price/Performance 11g SQL 2005

Highest Ranking Benchmark 1st 3rd

Price/tpmC $0.73 $0.84

tpmC 102,454 82,774

Publication Date 9/12/07 3/27/07

As of 5/12/08: HP ProLiant ML350G5, 102,454 tpmC, $.73/tpmC available 12/31/07. HP Integrity Superdome Server, 4,092,799 tpmC, $2.93 tpmC, available 8/6/07

(#1 TPC-C performance). Source: Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC)


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Windows Operating Systems Supported

windows 32 bit platform support
Windows 32-bit Platform Support

Planned – Latest DB patchset available at the time

TBD – To be determined. Will be announced later.

windows 64 bit platform support
Windows 64-bit Platform Support

Planned – Latest DB patchset available at the time

TBD – To be determined. Will be announced later.


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Oracle Database on Windows Architecture

architecture thread model

SGA contains

DB buffers,

log buffers

shared pool,

other memory


Oracle process






Each thread

consists of

PGA, stack,

other memory


Background and foreground threads


Architecture: Thread Model
database architecture
Database Architecture
  • Thread model
    • Not a straight port of Oracle’s process architecture
  • 3GB (32-bit) or 8TB (64-bit) maximum memory per database instance
    • VLM support allows more than 3GB on 32-bit
  • Runs as a Windows service process
  • No limits on memory, connections, resources except those imposed by the operating system

Oracle Enhancements for

Windows Server 2003

  • Large Page support
    • For instances with large memory requirements, large page support can improve performance
      • Set Registry parameter ORA_LPENABLE to 1
      • 32-bit – 4KB default – 2MB
      • Itanium – 8KB default – 16MB
      • x64 – 8KB default – 2MB
  • NUMA support for memory/scheduling
    • Database intelligently allocates memory and schedules threads based on node configuration
    • Best Practice: For NUMA on AMD patch to a minimum P5

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Best Practices for 32-bit Windows

32 bit memory best practices
32-bit Memory Best Practices
  • Increase addressable memory available to the Oracle process by adding /3GB switch to boot.ini file:

multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server" /fastdetect /3GB

  • Reboot server to enable
  • Must monitor kernel memory closely to prevent instability of operating system
  • See Metalink Notes 46001.1 and 297498.1
  • See Microsoft KB article 297812
monitoring memory
Monitoring Memory
  • Key Items to Monitor for Memory Usage:
    • Perfmon - Virtual Bytes for oracle.exe to see total memory used by the process
    • Total Pool Non-Paged Bytes – Memory Counter
      • If grows close to 128MB, operating system instability will occur
      • If this grows too high, look for memory leaks
    • Free System Page Table Entries (PTE’s) – Memory Counter
      • Should never fall below 7500 or so
      • /USERVA=2560 switch in boot.ini will help prevent this
using orastack
  • Each thread within Oracle process is provided 1 MB reserved stack space
  • Reduce to 500 KB without consequence on most systems:

C:\ orastack tnslsnr.exe 500000

C:\ orastack oracle.exe 500000

  • Be sure to run on BOTH tnslsnr.exe and oracle.exe
  • Stop processes before running Orastack
  • If you apply a patch, you must re-run Orastack
  • Make sure to test your system to be sure 500 KB is OK
  • See Metalink Note 46001.1 for more information
32 bit vlm support




Windows Server 2003

Memory Limits (32-bit)

Standard Edition:


Enterprise Edition:


Datacenter Edition:


For O/S, other apps



database threads/



32-bit: VLM Support
32 bit vlm support1

Memory from AWE calls

used for DB buffers only.

The amount of AWE

memory allocated

equals db_block_size

times db_block_buffers.

Oracle operating system process. Normally limited to 3GB of address space. With VLM, Oracle can get up to 12GB of database buffers.

32-bit: VLM Support

Extended memory

available for DB

buffers via AWE calls




For O/S, other apps

Window on DB

buffers in AWE mem

SGA minus DB buffers



implementing awe
Implementing AWE
  • Use AWE with Oracle by adding initialization parameter USE_INDIRECT_DATA_BUFFERS
  • With AWE, database buffer cache can be increased up to roughly 12 GB
  • Default value for AWE_WINDOW_MEMORY is 1 GB
  • See Metalink Note 225349.1 for more information
best practices for 32 bit memory
Best Practices for 32-Bit Memory
  • Use Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) to monitor cache hit ratios and shared_pool stats, etc. Make sure that values are not too high
  • When implementing AWE be aware that using AWE disables Automatic Memory Management features (SGA_TARGET cannot be used when USE_INDIRECT_DATA_BUFFERS is set).
memory best practices
Memory Best Practices
  • 11g: Use MEMORY_TARGET for automatic management of combined SGA and PGA
  • 10g and earlier:
    • Control SGA Memory by using SGA_TARGET parameter
    • Control PGA Memory by using PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter

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Active Directory Integration

net names management
Net Names Management
  • Store and resolve Net names through Active Directory
    • Eliminate tnsnames.ora on clients
    • Centralize configuration, reduce administration
    • Authenticated connection to Active Directory (11g)
  • Enhanced tools support for storing Net naming
    • AD Users and Computers
    • Oracle DB Configuration Assistant, Net Configuration Assistant and Net Manager
windows native authentication
Windows Native Authentication
  • Enabled by default and can work across systems
  • Windows user logon credentials used for database authentication
  • Authentication protocol (Kerberos or NTLM) negotiated based on OS and Domain Controller
  • Authorization can be granted through Windows group membership
    • Pre-defined Windows groups for DBAs and Operators
    • Uses Oracle External Users and External Roles mechanisms
  • Oracle Administration Assistant can be used to manage user authentication and role authorization
  • Independent of Database Registration and Name Resolution feature
kerberos authentication
Kerberos Authentication
  • Integrated with Microsoft Key Distribution Center (MSKDC)
  • Supports heterogeneous systems
    • A Windows client can connect to a non-Windows server and vice versa
  • Uses External User mechanisms in Database
  • Can also be supported with Enterprise User Security
  • EE and ASO (Advanced Security Option) feature

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Oracle Database 11g: New Features

active directory and windows security
Active Directory and Windows Security
  • Database Registration and Name Resolution
    • Support authenticated connection to Active Directory using OS authentication
  • Kerberos Authentication
    • Stronger encryption algorithms (DES3, AES, RC4)
      • Support default encryption type supported by MS KDC
    • Use DNS Domain Name as Kerberos REALM name by default
    • Kerberos authentication to Oracle database in a MS cross-domain setup
    • Removal of 30 character limit on the Kerberos user name
oracle vss writer
Oracle VSS Writer
  • Oracle Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) writer is transparently integrated with Windows VSS
    • Oracle writer installed automatically with Oracle DB
    • Automatic online point-in-time copy of Oracle database using VSS requestor
  • Simple backup and recovery procedure
  • Offload backup and reporting to another server using transportable snapshots
  • Integrated with Recovery Manager (RMAN) and Flash Recovery area
    • Intelligent post restore operations on restored files
      • E.g. file recovery, instance startup in mount/nomount mode after creating necessary directories
    • Automatic deletion of archive logs that are shadow copied by VSS framework
direct nfs client on windows
Direct NFS Client on Windows
  • Network Attached Storage (NAS) use Network File System (NFS)
  • Oracle Database 11g allow direct Windows NFS v3 access
    • Part of DB kernel in Oracle Disk Manager library
  • Common Oracle NFS interface for potentially all host platforms and NFS servers
  • Tailored for the specific I/O patterns that Oracle uses
    • Bypasses a lot of software layers in OS
  • Specially useful for Windows as Kernel NFS is not natively supported on Windows
  • Benefits: faster performance, easier manageability, simplified tuning, and better diagnostics
direct nfs
Direct NFS
  • Linear scalability of direct NFS can be achieved with inexpensive NICs
    • Does not require expensive switches which support link aggregation…Oracle does load balancing rather relying on a switch
    • Parallel network paths – More NICs – more bandwidth
  • Direct NFS is a good solution from low to high end database servers
grid control for microsoft servers systematic way to extend system coverage
Grid Control for Microsoft Servers Systematic way to extend system coverage
  • Key Benefit: Centralize Management
  • Enable GC to monitor and manage new components
  • Windows Host Management
  • MOM Connector
  • Microsoft plug-ins:
    • Exchange
    • SQL Server
    • Active Directory
    • .NET Framework
    • IIS
more information
More Information
  • Windows Server Center
  • Windows and .NET Blog
  • For more questions

The preceding is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions.The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remain at the sole discretion of Oracle.