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Chapter 6. Cells. Cell consists of nucleus and cytoplasm. In cytoplasm - organelles (“little organs”)‏. Cell membrane – boundary of cell. Membrane thin but selectively permeable (allows certain materials to pass through but not others).

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slide2
Cell consists of nucleus and cytoplasm.
  • In cytoplasm - organelles (“little organs”)‏
slide3
Cell membrane – boundary of cell.
  • Membrane thin but selectively permeable (allows certain materials to pass through but not others).
slide4

http://www.geosciences.unl.edu/~dbennett/images/Cell_membrane.gifhttp://www.geosciences.unl.edu/~dbennett/images/Cell_membrane.gif

slide5
Membrane has receptors that help receive messages (i.e. hormones)‏
  • Called phospholipid bilayer (composed of phospholipids); also various proteins in membrane.
slide7
1Endoplasmic Reticulum – increased surface area for reactions to take place.
  • ARough ER – Makes proteins (holds ribosomes)‏
  • BSmooth ER – Makes lipids.
slide8

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/endoplasmicreticulum/images/endoplasmicreticulumfigure1.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/endoplasmicreticulum/images/endoplasmicreticulumfigure1.jpg

slide9
2Ribosomes – some attached to rough ER (bound); some scattered throughout cytoplasm (free).
  • Function - protein synthesis.
slide10

http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI0105_Miller/read/ribosomes/ribosomes.jpghttp://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI0105_Miller/read/ribosomes/ribosomes.jpg

slide12

Modified protein

http://web.mit.edu/esgbio/www/cb/org/golgi.gif

slide13
4Mitochondria – cellular respiration.
  • Transform glucose into form of energy cell can use.
slide14

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/images/mitochondriafigure1.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/mitochondria/images/mitochondriafigure1.jpg

slide15
5Lysosomes – contain enzymes that break down molecules of foreign particles (“garbage cans” of cell)‏
slide16

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/lysosomes/images/lysosomesfigure1.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/lysosomes/images/lysosomesfigure1.jpg

slide17
6Centrosome – consists of 2 hollow cylinders (centrioles) - function in reproduction by separating chromosomes to new cells.
slide18

http://www.nicerweb.com/doc/class/bio1151/Locked/media/ch06/06_22CentrosomeStructur.jpghttp://www.nicerweb.com/doc/class/bio1151/Locked/media/ch06/06_22CentrosomeStructur.jpg

slide19
7Cilia and 8flagella – extensions of cells; used for cell movement.
  • Flagella - longer and fewer.
  • Cilia - smaller and more numerous.
slide20

http://pediatrics.med.unc.edu/div/infectdi/pcd/images/cilia.jpghttp://pediatrics.med.unc.edu/div/infectdi/pcd/images/cilia.jpg

Respiratory cilia

slide21

http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/flagella/support.gifhttp://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/flagella/support.gif

slide22
9Vacuoles – vesicles found in cell that have various functions.
  • AFood vacuole – breakdown of food.
  • BCentral vacuole – storage of waste.
  • CContractile vacuole – removal of water (osmoregulation).
slide23

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/images/plantvacuolesfigure1.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/images/plantvacuolesfigure1.jpg

slide24
10Microfilaments and microtubules – responsible for movement within cell (also responsible for structure)‏
slide26
11Nucleus – center of cell.
  • Covered by nuclear envelope with pores to allow substances to pass through.
  • Contains 12nucleolus (ribosome production) and chromatin (loose DNA).
slide27

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/nucleus/images/nucleusfigure1.jpghttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/nucleus/images/nucleusfigure1.jpg

movement through cells
Movement through cells
  • Passive does not require energy.
  • 4 passive movements (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration).
  • 1Diffusion – molecules or ions spread randomly from area of high concentration to area of low.
slide32
Particles will move until equilibrium reached (both sides equal).
  • Happens in lungs; O2, CO2 move by diffusion to be exchanged with air.
slide33
2Facilitated diffusion - substance too large to cross cell membrane.
  • Special protein carrier allows substance to pass through membrane.
slide34

http://w3.uokhsc.edu/human_physiology/presentation/facildiffani.gifhttp://w3.uokhsc.edu/human_physiology/presentation/facildiffani.gif

cells in solutions with water
Cells in Solutions with Water
  • Hypertonic- Greater concentration of dissolved particles than water. Cell will shrink as water moves into solution
  • Isotonic- Equal concentration of dissolved particles and water. Cell remains the same size.
  • Hypotonic- Lower concentration of dissolved particles than water. Cell will swell as water moves into the cell from the solution.
slide40
Active movement – requires energy.
  • Active transport – movement from area of low [ ] to high [ ].
  • Requires pumps (a.k.a carrier molecules) to cross membrane.
slide42
2 processes – no crossing membrane.
  • 1Endocytosis – substances fuse with membrane, brought into cell.
  • 2Exocytosis – substances move out of cell (2 types).
slide43
APinocytosis – cell lets out small droplets of liquid.
  • BPhagocytosis – cell lets out solids.
slide44

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/endocytosis.gifhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/endocytosis.gif

slide45

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/biology107/bi107vc/fa99/terry/images/PhagoAnA.gifhttp://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/biology107/bi107vc/fa99/terry/images/PhagoAnA.gif

cell cycle
Cell Cycle
  • Life cycle of cell - cell cycle.
  • Interphase is the first part of the cell cycle.
  • It is the period of preparing for cell division.
  • Mitosis is the division of the nucleus and is divided into four phases.
slide48

http://www.bioteach.ubc.ca/CellBiology/TheCellCycle/cellcycle.gifhttp://www.bioteach.ubc.ca/CellBiology/TheCellCycle/cellcycle.gif

slide49
Prophase - The chromosomes appear in nucleus from chromatin. Centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus.
  • Metaphase - The newly formed chromosomes line up midway between the centrioles and attach spindle fibers to the centrioles.
slide50

Prophase

http://sst.nsu.edu/bio110/exams/Prophase_Quiz.jpg

slide51

http://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/jonesc/pictures/metaphase.jpghttp://everyschool.org/u/logan/cellreproductionx/jonesc/pictures/metaphase.jpg

slide52
Anaphase - The chromosomes begin to separate into chromatids.
  • Telophase - The chromatids are now separate in their new cells.
slide53

Anaphase

http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/anaphase.jpg

slide54

Telophase

http://iws.ccccd.edu/jbeck/CellDivision%20web/Telophase.JPG

slide55
After the nucleus has divided, cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) occurs.
  • This is the last phase of the cell cycle.
  • The two cells are now completely separated.
slide56

http://img.sparknotes.com/figures/D/d756b5b73abe2974f3521a828791899f/cytokinesis.gifhttp://img.sparknotes.com/figures/D/d756b5b73abe2974f3521a828791899f/cytokinesis.gif

This will break

and the cells

will be separated.