Free chlorine: Model FCL chlorine sensor pH sensor • Two versions • FCL-01 chlorine only • FCL-02 chlorine with pH correction • Constant head flow controller--no valves or pressure regulators to worry about • Minimum flow about 3 gph • Everything mounted on a back plate • Sensor cables pre-wired to the analyzer drain inlet flow controller
FCLi-01 VP connector 498CL-01 sensor 1056 analyzer constant head flow controller cable pre-wired to analyzer inlet back plate drain
TCL… 1056 or 54eA analyzer pump switches sensor sample pump reagent pump air injection sample inlet overflow sampler drain reagent uptake tube
monochloramine sensor inlet flow controller drain Model MCL • Constant head flow con-troller--no valves or pressure regulators needed. • Minimum flow:3 gph • Linear range: 0 - 15 ppm • Linearity: 2% (typical) • Electrolyte life: about three months
Clarity II Turbidimeter • Clarity II Turbidimeter product position: • Design supports accurate low-NTU for DW plants • Key regulatory measurement for DW plants
Turbidity Definition - What is it? Turbidity is the “optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the sample.” Ref: Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater Turbidity is the clarity of the water sample.
Light Scattered by Particles Light Source Transmitted Light Scattered Light at 90° Detector Turbidity Theory - Basic Nephelometer Turbidity is the measure of the amount of light scattered by particles in a sample. A beam of light passes through a sample containing suspended particles. The particles interact with the light and scatter the light. A detector at 90° measures the intensity of the scattered light.
Clarity II Online Turbidimeter • Complete System • Single or Dual Sensor Input • Molded Debubbler/Measuring Chamber • USEPA Method 180.1 or ISO Method ISO 7027 • Resolution 0.001 NTU • Ideal for Low Level Turbidity for DW Plant Needs • Full Featured Analyzer with Seven Languages • NEMA 4X (IP65) Analyzer • Two 4-20 mA Outputs • 4 programmable Alarms (-02 and -03 power supplies) • Suitable for final treated Wastewater Discharge and Industrial Process Water Applications
Clarity II Online Turbidimeter • Clarity II Installation • Analyzer: • Surface or panel mount – one enclosure • Polycarbonate enclosure – UV resistant • Modular signal boards • Easy wiring, removable connectors • AC switching or 24VDC power supply • Two 4-20mA current outputs • Sensor: • No wiring of sensor leads • Sensor cable is pre-terminated with connector • Sensor connector is NEMA
Why Clarity II Turbidimeter? Feature and Performance Clarity II Hach 1720E Formazin standard for cal 500 ml max 1,000 ml Single point calibration Yes No, two points required Debubbling method Two stage Open to atmosphere Turbidity and calculated TSS Yes No, Turbidity only User defined default screens Yes No Cleaning measuring chamber Easy Convoluted debubbler Modular measurement boards Yes Digital interface 3-year warranty on 1056 Yes No 2-year warranty on Sensor Yes No
phosphate and silica turbogenerator superheated steam boiler condenser deaerater cooling water makeup water feedwater heater train silica hydrazine and sodium Where is the WetChemused?
Where is the WetChemused? turbogenerator supercritical steam exhaust steam deaerater steam generator condenser cooling water makeup water shell and tube heater condensate polisher hydrazine sodium silica
Where is the WetChemused? IP steam HP steam Steam turbine Deaerater HRSG Generator Exhaust gas HP IP LP Condenser silica Generator Demineralizer Gas turbine Hotwell HRSG HP: phosphate and silica IP and LP: phosphate hydrazine DI water tank
Raw water Purified water Demineralizer Why measure silica? Conductivity measures how well ionic contaminants are being removed. Contains mostly ionized dissolved solids, like sodium chloride. Also contains silica, which is not ionized. Silica analyzer measures how well silica is being removed.
steam to turbine turbine steam drum steam generator silica vaporizes boiler water Silica drops out of the steam and plates out on the turbine blades. silica accumulates in the boiler Why measure silica (cont’d)?
boiler turbogenerator superheated steam condenser deaerater cooling water Phosphate in the boiler water controls pH and reduces corrosion. Acid forming contaminants from cooling water leakage accumulate in the boiler. Why measure phosphate?
scavenge residual oxygen condenser deaerater cooling water to boiler hydrazine injection corrosion control Why measure hydrazine?
Why measure sodium? turbogenerator supercritical steam exhaust steam deaerater steam generator cooling water condensate polisher condenser The polisher blocks corrosive contaminants.
WetChem • Colorimetric analyzers • Silica • Phosphate • Hydrazine • ISE (ion specific electrode analyzer) • Sodium
LED detector capture sample add reagents wait for complete color formation measure absorbance How does the Colorimetric Analyzer work?
CALIBRATION CURVE standard sample absorbance blank hydrazine, ppb ppb = abs sample – abs blank slope How is the WetChem calibrated? BLANK STANDARD
ISE (Sodium) Analyzer pH glass electrode mV is proportional to -log ([H+] + a[Na+]) Typically, a is small, so unless [Na+] is very large, there is no error. Na glass electrode mV is proportional to -log ([Na+] + b[H+]) For the electrode to respond properly to sodium, the H+ concentration must be low enough, i.e. pH high enough, for the second term to be negligible.
How is the ISE (Sodium) Analyzer Calibrated? • Analyzer response is directly proportional to log Na. • Standardization is a two point calibration using 10 ppb and 100 ppb standards. mV 100 ppb 10 ppb log Na
What is the WetChem Analyzer? electronics colorimeter valve pump drain mixing chamber overflow sampler stream selector for multiple sample input cartridge filter in sample reagents and standards
standard and zero reagents Reagents and standards… • Reagents and standards are sold as a unit. • Reagents and reagent tubing are color-coded.
Maintenance… • Replace reagents and standards every three months. • Replace cartridge filter as needed. • Replace valve pump every 24 months. • Purchasing yearly reagent contract is strongly recommended.
185 - A001 - 03C model number three sample streams silica analyzer Ordering the WetChem Analyzers… • At the time ordering, the customer must also specify: • range • isolated or non-isolated output • single or multiple outputs • power: 115 Vac (60 Hz) or 230 Vac (50 Hz)
Optical Dissolved Oxygen - RDO • Released April 2010 • Single or Dual Channel • Modbus Sensor to Transmitter to PLC • Buyout Product from In-Situ Inc.
Analyzer specifications • Enclosure: Polycarbonate, NEMA 4X, IP67 • W X H X D: 6.3 x 6.3 x 3.6 in (16 x 16 x 9.0 cm) • Display: liquid crystal, char. height 0.4 in (6 mm) • Mounting: pipe or wall • Conduit openings: six (three gland fittings and five plugs supplied with each analyzer) • Ambient conditions: -4 to 158F (-20 to 70C), 95% RH • Analog outputs: two, fully scalable (loop powered) • Digital output: Modbus (RS485) • Relays: two low voltage and two high voltage • Barometric pressure: 8.86 to 29.53 in Hg (300 to1000 mbar) • Barometric pressure accuracy: 0.09 in Hg (3 mbar) • Power: 100 – 240 VAC, 50-60 Hz • For use in non-hazardous area only
8 in 203 mm 1.9 in 47 mm Sensor specifications • Process connection: 1 ¼ inch FNPT • Range: 0-20 ppm • Accuracy: 0.1 ppm between 0 and 8 ppm); 0.2 ppm between 8 and 20 ppm) • Resolution: 0.01 ppm • Response time: 30 sec to 90% of final value • Cable: integral or quick disconnect • Integral cable length: 32 ft (10 m) • Quick disconnect cable: 32 ft (10 m), 64 ft (20 m), 96 ft (30 m) standard lengths • Temperature: 32 to 122F (0 to 50C) • Pressure: up to 314 psig (2060 kPa abs) • Flow: no flow requirements • Operating life: one year from first reading
Sensor Cap • Sensor Cap needs to be replaced Annually • The clock starts counting as soon as the cap is installed • There is a Symbol in Analyzer when cap expires • When the cap expires, the readings will be the Sentinel Value • Default Sentinel Value is 0 mg/L
Electrochemical pH ORP Selective ion Conductivity Free chlorine Monochloramine Dissolved oxygen Physical Pressure Flow Temperature Optical, Electrochemical and Physical WQS Measurements Optical Turbidity
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