Cause and Effect Writing

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# Cause and Effect Writing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Cause and Effect Writing. English 1 Prof. Federle. Cause and Effect analyzes why something happens. Some effects are caused by multiple causes. Some causes, in turn, can result in multiple effects. Main cause: the most important cause Contributory Causes: less important

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### Cause and Effect Writing

English 1

Prof. Federle

Cause and Effect analyzes why something happens.
• Some effects are caused by multiple causes.
• Some causes, in turn, can result in multiple effects.
Main cause: the most important cause
• Contributory Causes: less important
• Immediate Cause: closely precedes the effect.
• Remote cause: less obvious because it involves something in the past or far away.
• Causal Chain: an effect can be the cause to another effect, on so on.
Avoiding Post Hoc Reasoning:
• Do not assume that just because even A precedes event B, event A caused even B. This illogical assumption is called post hoc reasoning. This error leads you to confuse coincidence with causality.
Do not confuse words like because, therefore and consequently(indicating a causal relationship), with words like subsequently, later, and afterward (chronological relationship words)
Exercise: Global Warming
• 1) Listen to the following report, originally presented on NPR’s news program, “Morning Edition” on February 17, 2006.
• 2) as you listen, answer the questions as they appear on the screen.
• 3) Afterwards, we will brainstorm the possible chain of cause and effect contributing to this issue.
NOTE TAKING WORKSHEETStudy: Greenland Ice Sheet Melting Faster Than Thought February 17, 2006 from National Public Radio’s Morning Edition
• Why are researchers interested in Greenland’s icecap?
• What are two opposing processes mentioned by Rignot that might either cause the icecap to melt, or to replenish it? What is actually happening?
• According to Harris, how fast is Greenland now losing ice? What is the effect?
• According to Rignot, what was the previous time scale for the loss of ice from Greenland? What is it now?
NOTE TAKING WORKSHEETStudy: Greenland Ice Sheet Melting Faster Than Thought February 17, 2006 from National Public Radio’s Morning Edition
• According to Konrad Steffan, what process is causing the acceleration of the loss of Greenland ice? Describe it. How fast is the glacier moving now?
• According to Steffan, what are the effects of this rapid melting? What problems might these effects, in turn, cause?
• According to Steffan, are these processes fully understood? Does he feel that the data is certain?
Main cause: the most important cause
• Contributory Causes: less important
• Immediate Cause: closely precedes the effect.
• Remote cause: less obvious because it involves something in the past or far away.
• Causal Chain: an effect can be the cause to another effect, on so on.
Planning a Cause and Effect Essay
• Purpose and Thesis:
• Be sure to identify the relationships among the specific causes and effect you will discuss.
• Thesis statement should tell the reader
• The points you plan to consider
• The position you will take
• Whether you will emphasize causes, effects, or both.
• The cause and/or effect you consider most important.
• The order in which you will treat your points.

Planning a Cause and Effect Essay

Order and sequence; several possibilities include:
• Chronological
• Main cause first, and then contributory causes
• Contributory causes first, and then main cause.
• Negative effects first, then positive
• First dismiss events that are not causes, and then discuss actual causes for an effect.
• Most obvious causes first, and then less obvious causes.

Planning a Cause and Effect Essay

Transitions!
• Transitions are essential to this type of essay to distinguish causes from effects.
• For a useful list of cause and effect transitions, see page 43.

Planning a Cause and Effect Essay

Structuring a Cause and Effect Essay
• Finding Causes
• Less important cause > effect> most important cause
• Describing or Predicting Effects
• Cause > first effect> second effect > third (most important) effect> conclusion (with possible prediction of additional effects).
Revising a Cause and Effect Essay
• See checklist on page 312

Editing a Cause and Effect Essay

• Avoid redundant phrases like “the reason is because” examples p 313
• Use Affect and Effect correctly. Examples p 313
• Editing checklist on page 314