Three Major Functions of the Circulatory System 1. Delivers ______ & _______ to cells. 2. Carries _______ & _______ away from cells. 3. Maintains _______ _______________.
Three Components of the Circulatory System • Blood • Blood Vessels • Heart
Four Components of the Blood • _______ (_______________) – carry oxygen w/ hemoglobin • ________(_______________) – fight diseases. • ________ – liquid portion of blood containing nutrients • ________ – clots blood
Blood __________ produces the blood. ___________ help form clots that control bleeding.
Blood Type • Type A = has antigen A on the surface of the red blood cells • Type B = has antigen B • Type AB = has both antigen A & B • Type O = has no antigens Type O is the universal donor and Type AB is the universal recipient.
Blood Vessels 1. _________ – thick, elastic; carries oxygenated (w/O2) blood away from the heart under great pressure 2. _________ – thin, not elastic; carries deoxygenated (no O2) blood back to the heart; low pressure 3. _________ – smallest & thinnest blood vessels; connect arteries to veins; where gas exchange occurs All blood vessels have _________ muscles that are controlled by the __________ nervous system.
Muscle Pumps (for veins) • _______ in _______ prevent the backflow of the blood. • When muscles contract, they squeeze the veins allowing the blood to move up to the heart.
Heart • Made of ________ muscles • Has ___ chambers. • Right/left _______ = collecting chambers • Right/left __________ = pumping chambers • ______ between atrium and ventricle prevent the backflow of blood
Pathway of blood flow Superior/inferior ____________ (biggest vein) _________________ _________________ ___________ artery to the lungs (pick up O2) ___________ vein __________________ __________________ _________(biggest artery)y) to the rest of the body
Heartbeat • Average heartbeat of an adult at rest = _____ beats/min - Sounds of a heartbeat “lubb” “dubb” come from the _______ opening and closing in the heart.
Blood Pressure • Measure of the pressure that the blood exerts on the blood vessels • Systolic/Diastolic = ave. adult ____ mm Hg/____ mm Hg _________ pressure = ventricles contract; high _________ pressure = ventricles relax; low
How is the heart beat regulated? • ___________ – generates electrical signals to regulate heartbeat - _______, or _________, stimulates atria to contract • _______ stimulates ventricles to contract • ______________– part of the the brain stem that controls the pacemakers.
An increased risk of circulatory diseases -____________ -_____________ -_______________ -_______________ -diet low in _______and ____________,high in ______________ Plaque blocks blood flow in arteries
Respiratory System • Function 1. Obtain ________ for metabolism. (cellular respiration) 2. Eliminate _______ ____ and water.
Respiratory System Structures • Nasal Cavity (nose) -cilia trap dusts and purify the air • ___________(throat) -helps air to pass through and traps microorganisms • ___________ (voice box) -Makes the vocal cord vibrate and produce sounds. • __________ - Prevents food from going into respiratory tract • __________ (windpipe) - Main trunk of the respiratory system. • Located in the center of the chest cavity • _________/__________ (left & right) -Two branches at the bottom of trachea; branches into smaller bronchioles. • __________ – air sacs at the end of bronchioles; gas exchange occurs.
Gas Exchange in the Lungs -Oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood to and from the ____________. -___________ diffuses from alveoli into capillary -Oxygen binds to ____________ in red blood cells -__________________diffuses from capillary into alveoli
Mechanism of Breathing • Breathing results from the movement of rib muscles and ___________. ___________ = a layer of muscle tissue that helps in breathing by contracting or relaxing Inhalation – rib muscles ________ & diaphragm ________; increases volume of chest cavity; air rushes in Exhalation – rib muscles _______ & diaphragm ________; decreases volume of chest cavity; air rushes out.
Diaphragm and Rib Cage Air flows from areas of ____ pressure to ___ pressure.
Effect of Smoking • Smoking is the leading cause of lung diseases.
Lymphatic System • ________ is collected from tissues and returned to the circulatory system. • The lymphatic system collects fluid that leaks out of the _____________. • Lymph vessels have _______ to prevent backflow. • Lymph nodes filter the _____ and destroy foreign matter. • Lymph vessels return cleaned fluid to the _________ system.
The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system. • Structures in the lymphatic system help ____________________. • tonsils filter _______ and _________ • _______ develops white blood cells • _______ filters lymph, contains immune cells • _____________ or white blood cells help destroy pathogens, parasites, & foreign matter.
The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system. • Structures in the lymphatic system help fight disease. • tonsils filter bacteria and viruses • thymus develops white blood cells • spleen filters lymph, contains immune cells • Lymphocytes help destroy pathogens, parasites, and foreign matter.