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Sept 20 • Questions from last week?
Think-pair-share • How do you define curriculum, and what do you believe to be the function of a building level or district level administrator in reviewing and monitoring curriculum policies and practices? • Plan to implement mission, principal executes, having oversight to review it • Is a floor plan to run courses; • An outline/blueprint – core of what is to be accomplished; principal needs to be directly involved because of evaluation • Principals at every level should be aware of and educated on other levels’ curriclulum.
Curriculum Defined… • An organized program of learning, segregated by subject area, composed of four main categories: content, instruction, assessment, and context. • Content = information and skills students should learn and eventually know by studying the material. • Instruction = accompaniment of strategies, lesson design, “uncovering” of knowledge • Assessment – formative and summative measures student performance and application of instruction. • Context = broad term for the educational environment in which the course material will be taught • Example - to understand the curriculum for an elementary school science class, it is important to note that the level of rigor should be suitable for elementary school students.
What is meant by what schools offer in terms of the “hidden curriculum?”
What is meant by “hidden curriculum?” • Any teachable moment as part of a student’s learning experiences that may not be a part of a particular content area • Relationships • Ethical behavior • Teaching integrity, mediation, etc. • Climate of a school • Culture of a school
Components of curriculum • Policies (federal, state, local board policy) • Rules, guidelines, recommendations that asset in governing what it to be learned • Goals • General, long-terms outcomes of whatever inputs are used to generate a student product at each level • Fields of Study – those established learning experiences offered over a yearly period to accomplish the goals • Programs of study – set of learning experiences in content areas for particular sets of learners
Components… • Course of Study – courses within a field of study that must be achieved to accomplish an outcome • Units of Study (UBD) – specific, measurable units that approach all the necessary material and learning outcomes that may prepare students for any number of assessments • Lessons - proper design, planning, instructional strategies (including differentiation), modifications for IEPs, time limits, concept mapping that maximizes retention at the conclusion of each day
SAS Tab – Case Study – Everyone needs to take a tab… Assessment - Max Curriculum Framework - Ashley Instruction- Becky Materials & Resources
Politics of Curriculum • Many external (society at large) and internal (local school district) constituents have an influence on what we teach • Can you name some external? • Feds, state, local gocvernment, colles and wuniveristiues, job force, charter and cyber schools, vo-tech, other school’s test scores, other scchool’s course offerings, • Internal? Band and chorus/clubs/sports (shared staff) and how schedule affects it; internships; RTI;
Federal government • Supreme Court decisions • Federal laws and mandates • Title VI and VII (Civil Rights), IX (Equal Opportunity) • PL 94-142 – beginning of “IEPs” • ESEA • ESL • NCLB • Laws enacted by Congress • Presidential platforms that influence the country • Sputnik (space race with Russia) • Cold War • Reagan era – Nation at Risk • Goals 2000 (Clinton)
State government • State Supreme Court decisions • Gaskin Decision • Various school finance decisions • Mandates and laws • 22 PA Code • Collective bargaining • State Board of Education • School year • Graduation requirements (Grad Project), etc. • Governor’s platform – budget!
Other External • CCSSO – Council of Chief State School Officers • National Governor’s Association • NEA, PSEA, AFT • NCTE, NCTM, NCSS, etc. • State and federal lobbyists and Think Tanks • Microsoft and Apple • Big business (using lobbyists to influence presidential and gubernatorial platforms)
External • Local chambers of commerce representing local business and industry • Local community norms, expectations, culture, ministerium • PDE – red tape
Internal • Local school district board policy (PSBA) • Individual school procedures and practices • Teachers and support staff unions • Curriculum and instruction practices • Scope and sequence • Budgeting • Superintendent platform and leadership • School culture and climate • Community demographics/diversity
UBD – as a reform model • It’s all about… • Design and planning – not just lesson planning • Beginning with the END in MIND • Desired results, outcomes, goals for student achievement must be identified WHAT IS THE END in your district/school?
UBD – as a reform model • If it’s largely about PSSA results, the PSSA, by definition, is the FLOOR, not the CEILING. • So, if you believe this, what do you believe to be the CEILING?
UBD – as a reform model • Teaching ‘to the test’ vs. ‘teaching the test’ – what’s the difference? • UBD has its roots in teaching the whole child, from basic skills and competencies through upper levels of Bloom • UBD requires powerful, careful, and articulated planning based on a day-by-day calendar-based mapping system
UBD … …can serve as a reform model for districts that are ready for it and ready to use its concepts, tools, language, and designs …can serve to increase student achievement …can ONLY be used well when a district understands its vision and mission, what it values, and how to design learning experiences for all students in its care
Vision (Collins) • Utilizes two major components • Guiding philosophy – fundamental assumptions, principles, values; stems from the organization’s core beliefs and values • A tangible image – what the organization is represented by – the seen and unseen of what others perceive to be what you are
Vision • The right vision is one that is a realistic, credible, and attractive future for that organization. • It represents the picture of the ideal best for all people to engage in and succeed in their own holistic development
Vision – Forward thinking… • It attracts commitment and energizes people • It creates meaning in peoples’ lives • It establishes a standard of excellence • It bridges the present and the future
Mission • A clear and compelling goal that serves to unify an organization's effort. • An effective mission must stretch and challenge the organization, yet be achievable.
Other necessary components • Core beliefs and values – important to the guiding principles of your organization • Are stated and operational • Compelling purpose – why your organizational exists and why YOU are a part of it • Constantly must teach relevance for kids at every level while demanding and encouraging kids that they CAN DO anything in which effort is a part
Other necessary components • Utilization of best practices and resources • Focus on current research and trends • Focus on PDE’s initiatives • Sound, accurate, appropriate leadership • Servant Leadership is key
For next time… • Ask your building level principals what they believe to be your school’s / district’s • Vision • Mission • Values • How an aligned curriculum should tie into each • Read CL and SBD chapters