WIND ENERGY. Presented By: omkar nath yadav 0916521034 EN III year. CONTENTS. 1.INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORY 2.WHY WIND ENERGY IS REQUIRED? 3. POWER IN THE WIND 4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 5. THE TECHNICAL ANALYSIS 5.1 INDUCTION GENERATOR 5.2 SYNCHRONOUS GENERARATOR
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omkar nath yadav
EN III year
2.WHY WIND ENERGY IS REQUIRED?
3. POWER IN THE WIND
4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
5. THE TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
5.1 INDUCTION GENERATOR
5.2 SYNCHRONOUS GENERARATOR
5.3 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE WITHOUT GEAR
5.4 WIND TURBINES
and atmosphere induces vertical and horizontal
air currents that are affected by the earth’s
rotation and contours of the land WIND.
~ e.g.: Land Sea Breeze Cycle
1.The Cheapest source of electrical energy
2. Wind Turbine Technology is available which is technically feasible.
3. No marketing risks, as the product is Electrical energy.
4. Wind Energy is considered as an important input for the economic development of any country.
5. This led to a search for environmental friendly renewable Energy sources.
6. Wind mill can be constructed near the load centre.
7. Wind mill can be immediately erected with in one month.
8. Can supply up to 20% of electricity demand.
P/m^2 = 6.1 x 10^-4 v^3
*The power in wind is proportional to the cubic wind speed ( v^3 ).
~ Kinetic energy of an air mass is proportional to v^2
~ Amount of air mass moving past a given point is proportional to wind velocity (v)
A Windmill captures wind energy and then uses a generator to convert it to electrical energy.
The design of a windmill is an integral part of how efficient it will be.
When designing a windmill, one must decide on the size of the turbine, and the size of the generator.
Able to deliver electricity at lower cost than smaller turbines, because foundation costs, planning costs, etc. are independent of size.
Well-suited for offshore wind plants.
In areas where it is difficult to find sites, one large turbine on a tall tower uses the wind extremely efficiently.
Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind.
Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set vertically and the main components are located at the base of the turbine.
It has rotor blade diameter of 126 metres sweeping an area of over 12,000 square metres.
Maximum power output is achieved at around 30 mph, but a couple of MW are generated even in a fresh breeze.
Rotors start turning at around 7 mph, and are automatically braked at 70mph.WORLD’S LARGEST TURBINE
i.e.. If you fit a large wind turbine rotor with a small generator it will be producing electricity during many hours of the year, but it will capture only a small part of the energy content of the wind at high wind speeds.
i.e.. If the generator has larger coils, and/or a stronger internal magnet, it will require more force (mechanical) to start in motion.
The electrical power by the induction generator and is transmitted to grid by the stator winding.
The stator winding is connected to the grid by the wind turbine.
The pitch angle is controlled in order to limit the generator out put power to its nominal value for high wind speeds.
But the speed variation is typically so small that the wind turbine induction generator is considered to be a fixed speed wind generator.
The reactive power absorbed by the induction generator is provided by the grid or by the some devices like capacitor banks, SUC, STATCOM or synchronous condenser.
It acts like load of its rated power at time of starting the flow this energy conversion
2.Wind measurement device
5.Nacelle control cabinet
Figure: Wind machine with a gear system
1.Installation costs are typically $125,000.
Therefore, the total costs will be about $575,000.
2.The average price for large, modern wind farms is around $1,000 per kilowatt electrical power installed.
3. Modern wind turbines are designed to work for some 120,000 hours of operation throughout their design lifetime of 20 years. ( 13.7 years non-stop)
4. A typical 600 kW turbine costs about $450,000.
Maintenance costs are about 1.5-2.0 percent of the original cost, per year.
Winds are influenced by the ground surface at altitudes up to 100 meters.
The main disadvantage regarding wind power is down to the winds unreliability factor. In many areas, the winds strength is too low to support a wind turbine or wind farm, and this is where the use of solar power or geothermal power could be great alternatives.
Wind turbines generally produce allot less electricity than the average fossil fuelled power station, requiring multiple wind turbines to be built in order to make an impact.
Wind turbine construction can be very expensive and costly to surrounding wildlife during the build process.
The noise pollution from commercial wind turbines is sometimes similar to a small jet engine.
This is fine if you live miles away, where you will hardly notice the noise, but what if you live within a few hundred meters of a turbine? This is a major disadvantage.
Protests and/or petitions usually confront any proposed wind farm development. People feel the countryside should be left in tact for everyone to enjoy it's beauty.
WIND TURBINE WAS BULIT IN
DENMARK BY POUL LACOUR IN 1891