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Homework # 18 Due Thursday. # 18 Read Pages 59-65. Answer questions 1-5 # 19 Due Friday 89-92 Q 1-5 # 20 Due Monday Read 93-97 Q 1,3,4,5,6 LIBRARY CONTRACT STILL DUE # 17. Aim: Was the authoritative rule of the Mauryan Empire justified?. Chandragupta : 321 BCE-298 BCE.

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homework 18 due thursday
Homework # 18 Due Thursday
  • # 18 Read Pages 59-65. Answer questions 1-5
  • # 19 Due Friday 89-92 Q 1-5
  • # 20 Due Monday Read 93-97 Q 1,3,4,5,6
  • LIBRARY CONTRACT STILL DUE # 17
slide3

Chandragupta: 321 BCE-298 BCE

  • Unified northern India.
  • Divided his empire into
  • provinces, then districts for
  • tax assessments and
  • law enforcement.
  • He feared assassination
    • • food tasters, slept in differentrooms, etc.
slide4

The Maurya Empire

321 BCE – 185 BCE

slide5

Kautilya

  • Chandragupta’s advisor.
  • Brahmin caste.
  • Wrote The Treatise onMaterial Gain or theArthashastra.
  • A guide for the king and his ministers:
    • Supports royal power.
    • The great evil in society is anarchy.
    • Therefore, a single authority is needed to employ force when necessary!
slide6
Kings have the right to confiscate land that you are not properly using
  • King can punish you if promote ideas of rebellion against the King
  • Deceiving a slave of his money or depriving him of the privileges he can exercise shall be punished with half the fine (levied for enslaving the life of an Aryan).
  • Strong Laws against the abuse of slaves. Especially sexual abuse
  • The king shall provide the orphans, the aged, the infirm, the afflicted, and the helpless with maintenance. He shall also provide subsistence to helpless women when they are carrying and also to the children they give birth to.
slide9

Asoka (304 – 232 BCE)

  • Religious conversion after the gruesomebattle of Kalinga in 262 BCE.
  • Dedicated his life to Buddhism.
  • Built extensive roads.
  • Conflict• how to balance Kautilya’smethods of keeping powerand Buddha’s demands tobecome a selfless person?
slide10

Asoka’s law code

  • Edicts scattered inmore than 30 placesin India, Nepal,Pakistan, & Afghanistan.
  • Written mostly inSanskrit, but one was in Greek and Aramaic.
  • 10 rock edicts.
  • Each pillar [stupa] is 40’-50’ high.
  • Buddhist principles dominate his laws.
slide11
The individual morality that Asoka hoped to foster included respect (//susrusa//) towards parents, elders, teachers, friends, servants, and Brahmins
  • He encouraged generosity (//dana//) to the poor (//kapana valaka//),
  • Asoka desired that people should be well-learned (//bahu sruta//) in the good doctrines (//kalanagama//) of other people's religions.
  • (//daya//), self-examination (//palikhaya//), truthfulness (//sace//), gratitude (//katamnata//), purity of heart (//bhava sudhi//), enthusiasm (//usahena//), strong loyalty (//dadha bhatita//), self-control (//sayame//) and love of the Dhamma (//Dhamma kamata//).
slide13

Asoka expanded

Roads

Planting trees next to roads

Hospitals

slide14

Turmoil & a power Vacuum:220 BCE – 320 CE

Tamils

The Maurya Empire is divided into many kingdoms.

slide16

Gupta Rulers

  • Chandra GuptaI
    • r. 320 – 335 CE
    • “Great King of Kings”
  • Chandra Gupta II
    • r. 375 - 415 CE
    • Profitable trade withthe Mediterraneanworld!
  • Hindu revival.
  • Huns invade – 450 CE
slide17

Fa-Hsien: Life in Gupta India

  • Chinese Buddhist monk traveled along the Silk Road and visited India in the 500 bce.
  • He was following the pathof the Buddha.
  • He reported the people to be happy, relatively free of government oppression, and inclined towards courtesy and charity. Other references in the journal, however, indicate that the caste system was rapidly assuming its basic features, including"untouchability," the social isolation of a lowestclass that is doomed to menial labor.
slide20

Extensive Trade:4c

spices

silks

cotton goods

spices

rice & wheat

horses

gold & ivory

gold & ivory

cotton goods

slide21

Kalidasa

  • The greatest of Indian poets.
  • His most famous play was Shakuntala.
  • During the reign of Chandra Gupta II.
slide22

GuptaArt

Greatly influenced Southeast Asian art & architecture.

slide23

Gupta Achievements

1000 diseasesclassified

500 healingplants identified

Printedmedicinal guides

Kalidasa

Literature

PlasticSurgery

Medicine

Inoculations

GuptaIndia

C-sectionsperformed

SolarCalendar

Astronomy

Mathematics

DecimalSystem

The earthis round

PI = 3.1416

Conceptof Zero

slide24

The Decline of the Guptas

  • Invasion of the White Huns in the 4c signaledthe end of the Gupta Golden Age, even thoughat first, the Guptas defeated them.
  • After the decline of the Gupta empire, northIndia broke into a number of separate Hindukingdoms and was not really unified again untilthe coming of the Muslims in the 7c.
  • QUESTION:Is the best literature and art written asthe civilization is on the rise, at itsheight, or in its decline?
slide25

Bhartrhari

  • 5c India court poet and philosopher.

Knowledge is man's crowning mark,A treasure secretly buried,The source of luxury, fame, and bliss,A guru most venerable,A friend on foreign journeys,The pinnacle of divinity.Knowledge is valued by kings beyond wealth---When he lacks it, a man is a brute.