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The Origins and Advancement of Early Human Societies. WH I.2. Introductions.

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Humans, or homo sapiens, emerged in East Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago. Humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and then to the Americas roughly 12,000 years ago by crossing the Bering Strait.

The early ages of humankind are based on the kinds of tools used; first stone, then copper and bronze, and then iron.

the first stone age 400 000 to 8000 bc
The First Stone Age 400,000 to 8000 BC

1. The first age of humankind is called the Paleolithic age. This means “Old Stone Age”.

Why do you think it was called that?

2. The Paleolithic Age started with the use of simple tools and ended when humans first used farming techniques.

hunter gatherer societies
Hunter-Gatherer Societies

1. The first human societies were know as hunter-gatherers. Because they lived by hunting and gathering food that they found in the wild.

2. In other words, the were nomadic, traveling constantly as a means of survival. Otherwise, they would quickly use up their sources of food and clothing.

hunter gatherer societies1
Hunter-Gatherer Societies

3. Hunter-Gatherers traveled in groups of families called clans, searching for plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts, and for animals to kill and eat.

4. These early humans had no written language, but used oral language to organize their hunts. This proved essential to big-game hunts that were dangerous and complicated.

hunter gatherer societies2
Hunter-Gatherer Societies

5. Hunter-Gatherers also created base camps, using natural shelters such as caves. The invention of fire ensured that no large animals, like bears, tried to share the caves with them.

physical geography influenced the way early humans lived
Physical Geography Influenced the Way Early Humans Lived
  • 1. Wherever hunter-gatherers went, varied physical conditions required new hunting techniques, tools and clothing in order to survive.
  • 2. Colder climates called for warmer clothing made of animal fur, and stitched together with bone needles.
    • A. Hunters made spear throwers, bows, and arrows and barbed spears to kill these fur-bearing animals.
achievements of the paleolithic age
Achievements of the Paleolithic Age
  • 1. Simple stone tools
  • 2. FIRE!
  • 3. Taming dogs for help in hunting
  • 4. Oral language
  • 5. Cave Art
    • A. Found in France, Spain, Africa, and Australia
      • Which could we say are the oldest?
    • B. Art depicted scenes of wild animals and humans
    • C. it is believed that cave are played a part in religious practices.

You are going to create

your own cave drawings!

1. You must include time appropriate drawings: i.e.. use fire, bows and arrows, big game animals, domesticated dogs, stone tools, images of hunting and gathering in your cave drawings.

2. This will count as a grade, don’t worry about artistic ability, just do your best!

the new stone age 8000 4000bc
The New Stone Age: 8000-4000BC

1. The development of farming created a new age known as the Neolithic Age.

characteristics of neolithic societies
Characteristics of Neolithic Societies

1. People began settling in stable communities built in good locations for planting and tending to crops year after year.

2. This production agriculture provided large amounts of food and resources.

characteristics of neolithic societies1
Characteristics of Neolithic Societies
  • 3. Because only a portion of community member had to do the farming, others could practice trades or provide services
    • A. in other words, agriculture allowed for more civilized living.
      • 1. Manufacturing of pottery and other goods
      • 2. Development of economic and social classes
      • 3. A wider range of religious and social activities
characteristics of neolithic societies2
Characteristics of Neolithic Societies

4. Remember: hunter-gather societies did not simply disappear during the Neolithic Age, since it was still a suitable way of life in some environments, even today. (ex. Bushman of southern Africa)

advances of the neolithic age that led to settled communities
Advances of the Neolithic Age that Led to Settled Communities

1. Polishing of tools instead of chipping them

2. Domestication of goats, sheep, pig and later cattle

3. Weaving of cloth replaced animal skins as clothing

4. Development of seed culture

5. A division of labor

6. These advances allowed for population increases, economic prosperity, and a distinctive cultural and spiritual life.

how archeologists study early humans
How Archeologists Study Early Humans
  • 1. Locating and analyzing human remains, tools and other artifacts of early human life
  • 2. Procedures used…
    • A. Carbon Dating to determine the approximate age of artifacts such as tolls jewelry and pieces of pottery.
      • 1. the amount of carbon in man-made materials decreases over time through a process called radioactive decay.
      • 2. Carbon levels determine the age of these organic materials
how archeologists study early humans1
How Archeologists Study Early Humans

3. New archeological findings continue to raise questions about the true origins of humankind. Studies suggest that China may have been a place of human origin, not just Africa.