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Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities. Wei- Ru , Yao 1 Chu-Min Liao 2 , & Deborah Shapiro 1 Georgia State University 1 & National Taiwan Sport University 2 AAHPERD 2014. Benefits From Exercise. Adult. Childhood. Exercise Habitual Behavior.

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slide1
Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities

Wei-Ru, Yao1 Chu-Min Liao2, & Deborah Shapiro1

Georgia State University1 & National Taiwan Sport University2

AAHPERD 2014

benefits from exercise
Benefits From Exercise

Adult

Childhood

Exercise Habitual Behavior

(Dennison, Straus, Mcllits, & Charney, 1988)

significant others
Significant Others

Parents

Coaches

Children

Peers

(Chang, 1999; Liao, 2008; Harter, 1999; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000)

mechanism
Mechanism

Children

Parents

Role Model

Expectancy Belief

&

Value Belief

Expectancy Belief

&

Value Belief

Interpreters of Experience

Providers of Experience

(Eccles et al., 1983; Eccles, 1991; Wigfield, 1997; Lee & Liao, 2005; Lin & Liao, 2005; Lai & Liao, 2007)

disability types
Disability Types

Social Contact

Intellectual Disability

Open-Ended Items

Enhancing Physical Ability

(Megginson, Nakamura, & Frust,1997)

Social Experience

Spinal Injury

Interview & Field Notes

Sport Skills

(An & Goodwin, 2007)

Avoiding Social Isolation

Emotional Adjustment

Self-Report & Interview

Physical Disability

Promoting Physical Fitness

(Kozub, 2001; Melograno & Loovis, 1991; Antle, Mills, Steele, & Rossen, 2007)

purpose
Purpose

Gender

Parents’ Motives

Disability Types

research questions
Research Questions

Gender

1

Parents’ Motives

Disability Types

Hearing Impairment

Physical Disability

2

Visual Impairment

Intellectual Disability

participants
Participants
  • 184 parents
    • fathers=78 & mothers=106,
    • elementary school children with disabilities
    • boys=113 & girls=71
    • from north, middle, and south of Taiwan, including ten cities and counties.
  • Four disability types
    • Physical Disability (PD) =42,
    • Hearing Impairment (HI) =35,
    • Visual Impairment (VI)=7,
    • Intellectual Disability (ID) =100
instruments
Instruments
  • Demographic Questionnaire
    • Gender, Age, Disability Type, Severity of Disability, Grade
  • Exercise Participation Motives (Wu, 2009)
    • 33 Items
    • Six sub-categories,
      • Personal fitness and skill improvement (n=9),
      • Social expectation and external factor (n=6),
      • Competition and challenge (n=6),
      • Social enhancement(n=5),
      • Positive emotion and friendship (n=5),
      • Teamwork (n=2)
procedures
Procedures
  • Recovery Rate: 44%

Telephone Contact

Permission

Follow Up

Two Weeks

data analysis
Data Analysis
  • Two One-way MANOVAs

Dependent Variables

  • Personal Fitness & Skill Improvement

Independent Variables

  • Competition & Challenge

Children’s Gender

  • Social Expectation & External Factor

Six Sub-Categories

Children’s Disability Types

  • Social Enhancement
  • Positive Emotion & Friendship
  • Teamwork
results
Results
  • No gender differences were found on parent’smotives.
results1
Results
  • No disability type differences were found on parents’motives except “Teamwork”.
post hoc analysis
Post Hoc Analysis

Hearing Impairment

Teamwork

>

Intellectual Disability

Physical Disability

F (18, 481.32)=1.70, Wilk’s Lambda= .82, p< .05

discussion
Discussion
  • Inconsistent with past statements and research findings

Parents’ Motives

(Chang, 1994; Nancy, 2007; Eccles, Wigfield, Harold, & Blumenfeld, 1993; Wigfield et al.,1997; Wigfield & Eccles, 2000)

  • But support Martin’s (2006) research results
  • Parental encouragement for athletes with disabilities did not vary according to gender.
  • (Martin, 2006)
  • The effect of gender appropriateness of sport appears to be diminished in children with disabilities
discussion1
Discussion
  • Disability type does not influence parents’ motives for their child’s sport and exercise participation
    • Benefits
  • Teamwork
    • Lack Interaction Opportunities with Others

(Moola et al.,2007; Dunn & Dunn, 2006; Sherrill, 1997; Blind & McClung, 1997)

(Chang,2005;Antle, Mills, Steele, & Rossen, 2007)

practical application
Practical Application
  • Programming should be based on parents’ needs
  • Extracurricular athletic opportunities
    • More options and opportunities for parents
slide18
Is Gender Appropriateness of Sport also Haunting Children with Disabilities

Wei-Ru, Yao1 Chu-Min Liao2, & Deborah Shapiro1

Georgia State University1 & National Taiwan Sport University2

AAHPERD 2014

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