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Climate Change and Green Technology. Dr.Roy Kunjappy Convenor, FANSA-Kerala Chapter/ Director CCHR Centre for Community Health Research (CCHR), Sadanathil bungalow, Vettikavala, Kottarakara ,

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Climate Change and Green Technology

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    1. Climate Change and GreenTechnology Dr.Roy KunjappyConvenor, FANSA-Kerala Chapter/ Director CCHR Centre for Community Health Research (CCHR), Sadanathil bungalow, Vettikavala, Kottarakara , Kollam ,Kerala; India. Tel: 91 474 2403358; Mob: 09847282833; ;

    2. Part-1: Climate change

    3. CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL IMPACTS • Climate change is currently evidenced as severe storms, floods and droughts. • Substantial reduction of tropical forests and grassland; • Decrease in the availability of water in the rivers/groundwater level/ dug wells; • Decline in yields of food grains; • Rise in sea level leading to erosion of coastal areas • and increased incidence of water borne disease, and vector-borne disease such as malaria.

    4. Sources of CO2 in atmosphere • CO2emissionfrom motor vehicles, factories, waste decomposition, etc. etc • From natural sources like volcanoes eruption etc. etc.

    5. Global Warming is produced by GHSGreen house gases: share of each gas Source: IPCC 2007

    6. CO2 Increase • The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere till 1950 has never exceeded 300 ppm. • But the atmospheric concentration of CO2 in 2005 was 370 ppm. Before 1950 - 180-300 ppm, 1950 - 300 ppm 2005 - 370 ppm. Safety level : 350 ppm ( )

    7. There is strong evidence for global warming and climate change • Sea temperatures have risen by an average 0.50C over the last 40 years. • Global surface temperatures have risen about 0.70C in the past 100 years. • The global mean sea level has risen between 10 and 25 cm (average 13 cm) during the last 100 years. • In the Arctic 20,000 square kilometers of fresh water ice have melted.

    8. Predictions on climate change Climate models predict an increase in average surface air temperature of about 2.50C by the year 2100.

    9. Climate change impacts in Kerala • WHO report of on dengue fever • Rise in sea level • Lowering of water tables

    10. Part-II: Green Technology

    11. What is Green technology Or Environmental technology or Clean technology? • Green Technology or Environmental technology or Clean technology is the application of one or more of environmental Sciences, Green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. • Green technology is a field of new, innovative ways to make changes in daily life. Currently, this Clean Technology is in the beginning stages of its development, so the future will only bring bigger and better things for this field.

    12. Green Technology is part of Business Exchange ( from developed countries to developing or reverse order). • Cleantech, is new technology and related business models offering competitive returns for investors and customers while providing solutions to global challenges • Green Technology is the safeguard against environmental pollution. • Green Technology gives the concept of cleanliness and freshness.

    13. What is Green chemistry? The invention, design and application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.

    14. Adopting the green technology, we are intending to make the earth green free from any danger. • Ourenvironment needs salvage from pollution. With the help of recycling process we can reduce the waste material. Reusable things are better to introduce to improve the cleanliness level. • Wateris the basic for green life which is the symbol of cleanliness. Impure water causes many diseases. • Wateris the basic ingredient of Green Technology without water there is nothing fresh.

    15. Planting more and more trees is the demand of present environment. They absorb carbon dioxide from surrounding and release oxygen which helps us to breath(United Nations has declared the year 2011 as the ‘International Year of Forests’). • Developing proper sewage system needs innovative green technologies. • This waste water should be directed towards the places where it can be used like fields. • At present Kerala state is having no waste management model? ( ref. CM of Kerala)

    16. Examples of Green Technology • Recycling • Water Purification • Air Purification • Sewage treatment • Environmental remediation • Solid waste management • Renewable energy • eGain forecasting • Energy Conservation

    17. Recycling: eg. Liquid and solid waste recycling • Water purification: The whole idea/concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water flowing throughout the environment. • Air Purification: basic and common green plants can be grown indoors to keep air fresh because all plants remove CO2 and convert it into oxygen. • Sewage treatment is conceptually similar to water purification. • Environmental remediation is the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. • Solid waste management is the purification, consumption, reuse, disposal and treatment of solid waste • Renewable energy is energy that can be replenished and that can be produced by natural resources/minerals like wood, sun, wind,tides, water etc. • E-gain forecasting is a method using forecasting technology to predict the future weather's impact. • Energy conservation is the utilization of devices that require smaller amounts of energy in order to reduce the consumption of electricity ( Carbon Credit programme- eg. CFL lamp distribution in Kerala).

    18. Recycling • Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions. • Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.

    19. A recycling truck collecting the contents of a recycling bin in Canberra, Australia Recycling and rubbish bin in a Germanrailway station.

    20. Early sorting of recyclable materials: glass and plastic bottles in Poland.

    21. Waste is not a waste but a resource Sign board at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

    22. E-waste collection/ recycling point Computers being collected for recycling at a pick up event in Olympia, Washington.

    23. Water purification • · 1 Sources of water( source protection) • · 2 Treatment • 2.1 Pre-treatment • 2.1.1 pH adjustment • 2.2 Flocculation • 2.3 Sedimentation • 2.4 Filtration • 2.4.1 Rapid sand filters • 2.5 Membrane filtration • 2.5.1 Slow sand filters • 2.5.2 Removal of ions and other dissolved substances • 2.5.3 Other mechanical and biological techniques • 2.6 Disinfection • 2.6.1 Chlorine disinfection • 2.7 Chlorine dioxide disinfection • 2.8 Chloramine disinfection • 2.8.1 Ozone disinfection • 2.8.2 Ultraviolet disinfection • 2.8.3 Hydrogen peroxide disinfection • 2.8.4 Various portable methods of disinfection • 2.8.5 Solar water disinfection • 2.9 Additional treatment options

    24. Rainwater harvesting ( ferro-cement technology at SG College, Kottarakara)

    25. Air purification: Air Quality in Ernakulam, Kerala Ambient air is monitored by Pollution Control Board for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) from stations located in industrial, residential and sensitive areas. Observations at these stations show that SPM and RSPM regularly exceed allowable limits. SO 2 and NO X levels are observed to be almost always within the prescribed limits ( source: Kerala pollution control Board)

    26. CNG Vehicle Numbers By Country The table below reflects the number of CNG vehicles currently circulating in leading countries. Sources: Gas Vehicles Report, December 2010,

    27. CNG implementation: New Delhi A success story in India on air pollution-New Delhi

    28. A success story in India on air pollution-New DelhiESTIMATED VEHICULAR EMISSION LOAD IN NEW DELHI

    29. BIODIESEL Technology Biodiesel is produced from plant seed: • Jatropha seed oil • Agricultural crops • Soyabean oil • Corn oil • Sunflower • Canola • Palm oil

    30. Jatropha plantation Biodiesel

    31. Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Eg.ECOSAN-Technology.

    32. Sewage treatment plant

    33. Origins of sewage • 2.1 Pre-treatment • 2.1.1 Screening • 2.1.2 Grit removal • 2.1.3 Flow equalization • 2.1.4 Fat and grease removal • 2.2 Primary treatment • 2.3 Secondary treatment • 2.3.1 Activated sludge • 2.3.2 Surface-aerated basins (Lagoons) • 2.3.3 Constructed wetlands • 2.3.4 Filter beds (oxidizing beds) • 2.3.5 Soil bio-technology • 2.3.6 Biological aerated filters • 2.3.7 Rotating biological contactors • 2.3.8 Membrane bioreactors • 2.3.9 Secondary sedimentation • 2.4 Tertiary treatment • 2.4.1 Filtration • 2.4.2 Lagooning • 2.4.3 Nutrient removal • Nitrogen removal • Phosphorus removal • 2.5 Disinfection • 2.6 Odour control • 3. Sludge treatment and disposal • 4.1 Anaerobic digestion • 4.2 Aerobic digestion • 4.3 Composting • 4.4 Incineration • 4.5 Sludge disposal

    34. Environmental remediation • Environmental remediation is the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with environmental monitoring.

    35. Solid waste management Solid waste management is the purification, consumption, reuse, disposal and treatment of solid waste that undertaken by agencies including Governments/local bodies ( Panchayats/Municipalities/ Corporations)

    36. Solid waste management in Kerala ? (yet no sustainable model?)

    37. Solid waste management Molded plastic, wheeled waste bin Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeckmechanical biological treatment plant

    38. A front-loading garbage truck in North America. Truck loaded with domestic garbage Incineration plant in Vienna.

    39. Incineration • Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management.This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". • Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. • Incineration, the combustion of organic material such as waste with energy recovery is the most common WtE implementation.

    40. Landfill • Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials.

    41. Landfill operation A landfill compaction vehicle in action

    42. Bio-degradable waste into vermicompost in Kerala

    43. A small bio-gas plant operated by students of St:Gregorios College, Kottarakara, as part of the campaign on “zero-waste campus” ( Bio-gas used at the College canteen)

    44. Biogas technology Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Bio-gas plant in Kottarakara Market

    45. Non-renewable energy and renewable energy • Non-renewable energyis that source of energy which can not be used again and again.These non-renewable energies like coal, oil and gas are getting scarce. Energy sources like oil, coal and gas are known as fossil fuels. • Renewable energyis the energy from natural sources and objects like sun, wind, and tides; nuclear and hydroelectric power. Renewable energy is energy that can be replenished easily. For years we have been using sources like wood, sun, water, etc. for means for producing energy.

    46. Renewable Energy -India • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy of Government of India. • The Ministry is mainly responsible for research and development, intellectual property protection, and international cooperation, promotion, and coordination in renewable energy sources such as wind power, small hydro, biogas, and solar power. The broad aim of the Ministry is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of India.

    47. Renewable Energy Sources

    48. Geothermal energy: Steam rising from the Geothermal Power Station in Iceland. Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth