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  1. Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction Lecture 45Conclusion Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT)

  2. In Last Lecture … • Paradigms • Ubiquitous computing • Pervasive computing • Wearable computing • Tangible bits, augmented reality and physical/virtual integration • Attentive environments and transparent computing

  3. HCI – A Formal Definition “Human-Computer Interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them” -ACM/IEEE

  4. Human-Computer Interaction Usability User Experience Interface Interaction Computer Human

  5. Usability Goals • Effectiveness • Efficiency • Safety • Utility • Learnability • Memorablity

  6. User Experience Goals • Satisfying • Enjoyable • Fun • Entertaining • Helpful • Motivating • Aesthetically Pleasing • Supportive to Creativity • Rewarding • Emotionally Fullfilling

  7. Fun Satisfying Emotionally fullfilling Efficient to use enjoyable Effective to use Rewarding Easy to remember Usability Goals Supportive of creativity Easy to learn Safe to use Entertaining Have good utility Aesthetically pleasing helpful Motivating

  8. Software Quality – Usability • softwarequalititydependsuponanumberoffactors • Functionality • Reliability • Usability • Efficiency • Maintainability • Portability

  9. Nature of computers • Computers are very poor at communicating • Communication can be precise but still being wrong

  10. Feature Shock • Manual devices are easier to use • Simplicity • Flexibility • Hi-tech companies add more feature to improve product • Product becomes more complicated

  11. Paradox … Why Were Computers Invented? • Computers were invented to make life easy, convenient and efficient

  12. HCI and Software Engineers • Software engineers are more focused on internal workings of software • In HCI we are concerned with external workings of software

  13. Business Success  User Experience Success Criteria in the New Economy • Success depends upon the ability of a business to effectively and efficiently meet users’ needs and goals

  14. HCI Topics

  15. Human Capabilities and Characteristics

  16. Cognition • Also described in terms of specific process • Attention • Perception • Memory • Learning • Reading, speaking and listening • Problem solving, planning, reasoning, decision making

  17. Extension to the Information Processing Model Attention Encoding Comparison Response Selection Response Execution Memory

  18. People are Explanatory Creatures Interact with world Human tendency to form explanations

  19. Mental Model • Human (uses) understanding (conceptual model) of the way • Objects work • Events take place • People behave Object Conceptual Model Mental Model Perceive Design User Designer Uses object Design object

  20. How Are Faulty Mental Models Formed? Object Poor Understanding Fragmentary Evidence (incomplete info) • Naïve Psychology • Causes • Mechanisms • Relationships Faulty Mental Model

  21. Effect of Faulty Mental Models • Computer screen freezes  bash keyboard • TV not working  bang TV top

  22. Goals Intention to act Evaluation of the Interpretations sequence of actions Interpreting the perception execution of The action sequence Perceiving the state of the world THE WORLD 7 Stages of Action

  23. Design Principles • Conceptual Models • Visibility • Affordance • Constraints • Mapping • Consistency • Feedback

  24. Desirability Capability Product Viability Success Factors for Technology Products

  25. Process Lifecycle Models • Waterfall • And others

  26. Development Stages Ship Initiate Design Code Test

  27. Goal-directed Design Research User and the domain Modeling Users and use context Requirements Definition of user, business& technical needs Framework Definition of design structure & flow Refinement Of behavior, form& content

  28. Types of Users Beginners Perpetual intermediates Experts What new features are in this upgrade? I forgot how to import How do I automate this? What does the program do? How do I find facility X? What are the shortcuts for this Command? What is this control for? Remind me What this does? How do I print? Can this be changed How can I customize this? What is the program’s scope? Oops ! Can I undo? What was the command for X? Is there keyboard equivalent? Where do I start? What is dangerous?

  29. Qualitative Research Techniques • Stakeholder Interviews • Subject matter expert (SME) interviews • User and customer interviews • User observation/ethnographic field studies • Literature review • Product/prototype and competitive audits

  30. Cumulative Effect of Requirements Missing/deficient requirement Missing/deficient design Missing/deficient user interface implementation

  31. Conceptual Design and Prototyping • Prototyping techniques • Low fidelity • High fidelity • Wireframes and blueprints

  32. Software postures • Software Postures • Sovereign posture (full-screen programs: outlook, word) • Transient posture (temporary programs: calculator, volume control) • Daemonic posture (work in background: taskbar icons) • Auxiliary posture (streaming audio in browser pane)

  33. Flow & Communication • Orchestration and Flow • Excise and navigation • Alerts, notifiers, confirmations

  34. Files, documents and software • Undo • Files and Save • Unified document management • Making software considerate • Making software smart

  35. Visual design • Principles of visual interface design • Principles of visual information design • Use of text and color in visual interfaces • Consistency and standards

  36. Evaluation The process of systematically collecting data that informs us about what it is like for a particular or group of users to use a product for a particular task in a certain type of environment

  37. Some good reasons • Problems are fixed before product is shipped, not after. • The team can concentrate on real problems, not imaginary ones. • Engineers code instead of debating. • Time to market is sharply reduced. • Good product design that works for sales pitches. - Tognazzini

  38. Evaluation types • Heuristic evaluation • Home pages • Usability testing

  39. Conceptual Framework for Developing User Experience Web as hypertext system Web as software interface surface skeleton structure scope strategy Task-oriented Information-oriented

  40. Other topics • Asking users: interview and questionnaires • Information retrieval • Web topics • Web searching systems • Web accessibility • Web localization • Emerging paradigms

  41. HCI Stats

  42. Findability • 62%of web shoppers give up looking for the item they want to buy online – Zona Research • Users can only find information 42% of the time – Jared Spool

  43. Software Maintenance Costs • 80% of software lifecycle costs occur after the product is released, in the maintenance phase - of that work, 80 % is due to unmet or unforeseen user requirements; only 20 % is due to bugs or reliability problems. - IEEE Software

  44. Reasons for Failure • 49% of sites do not comply with simple usability principles – Forrester Research • Only 24% of internet companies conduct usability testing – Forrester Research • 90% of sites have poor usability – Jakob Nielsen

  45. Sydney Olympics • Bruce Lindsay Maguire vs Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympics Games (SOCOG) • Allegation: SOCOG in breach the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 by failing to make accessible to him key parts of its web site • vast majority of organisations with a web site must ensure that their web site is (within certain limits) accessible by disabled persons

  46. Life Imitates Art • 1 in every 4 computers has been physically attacked by its owner - Novatech (British PC Manufacturer) • Almost ⅓ of people have physically attacked a computer – National Opinion Poll/Symantec • 67% experienced frustration, exasperation and anger – National Opinion Poll/Symantec • 70% swore at their machines – National Opinion Poll/Symantec

  47. HCI Strategies and Approaches

  48. Conceptual Framework for Developing User Experience Web as hypertext system Web as software interface surface skeleton structure scope strategy Task-oriented Information-oriented

  49. Strategies and approaches • Organizational culture change • user-centered design • Process: Iterative and incremental + evaluation • Multidisciplinary teams • Programmers should not be designers • Conflict of interest

  50. Social Organizational Psychology Cognitive Psychology Linguistics Anthropology Ergonomics & Human Factor HCI Philosophy Design Computer Science Engineering Artificial Intelligence