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3-4 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem?. Matter, in the form of ____________, cycles within and among ecosystems and the biosphere, and human activities are altering these _____________________. Nutrients Cycle within and among Ecosystems. Nutrient cycles Hydrologic Carbon Nitrogen

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3 4 what happens to matter in an ecosystem
3-4 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem?

  • Matter, in the form of ____________, cycles within and among ecosystems and the biosphere, and human activities are altering these _____________________

Nutrients cycle within and among ecosystems
Nutrients Cycle within and among Ecosystems

  • Nutrient cycles

    • Hydrologic

    • Carbon

    • Nitrogen

    • Phosphorus

    • Sulfur

  • ____________________ may remain in a reservoir for a period of time (rates vary).

I the water cycle processes and terms
I. The Water Cycle: Processes and terms

  • Three major processes

    • Evaporation,

    • Precipitation (Rain = ________________),

    • Transpiration

  • Other Terms

    • Runoff

    • ___________________ (more to come later)

      • Infiltration & Percolation

      • Salt Water Intrusion


Ice and snow



from plants

Precipitation to land

Evaporation of

surface water



from ocean

Lakes and



Precipitation to ocean

Increased runoff on land covered with crops, buildings and pavement

Infiltration and percolation into aquifer

Increased runoff from cutting forests and filling wetlands


Groundwater in aquifers

Overpumping of aquifers

Water pollution



Natural process

Natural reservoir

Human impacts

Natural pathway

Pathway affected by human activities

Fig. 3-15, p. 63

Ecological importance of the water cycle
Ecological Importance of the Water Cycle

  • Alteration of the hydrologic cycle by humans

    • Withdrawal of large amounts of freshwater at rates faster than _________________________

    • Clearing vegetation

    • Increased flooding when wetlands are drained

    • Loss of water retention in disturbed ____________________________.

      • 90% of water that reaches the atmosphere moves/is lost through plant transpiration and from soil.

Science focus water s unique properties
Science Focus: Water’s Unique Properties

  • Properties of water due to ______________ between water molecules:

    • _______________ over large temperature range

    • Changes temperature slowly (high specific heat  high heat capacity)

    • High boiling point: 100˚C (At sea level)

    • ______________ and __________________

    • Expands as it freezes

    • “Universal” Solvent

    • Filters out harmful UV

Water temperature density chart liquid most dense at 3 98 d celsius
Water Temperature Density ChartLiquid most dense at 3.98 D Celsius.

Hydrogen Bonds in Water

Slightly negative charge



Slightly positive charge

Fig. 3-A, p. 64

Http vimeo com 37064053

The carbon cycle based on co 2
The Carbon Cycle (Based on CO2)

  • _______________ remove CO2 from the atmosphere

    • reminder: They also release it during respiration, but net reduction

  • ________________ use CO2

  • Some carbon takes a long time to recycle (Big old trees, fossil fuels, etc.)

  • Humans altering carbon cycle by burning fossil fuels

Carbon dioxide in atmosphere



Animals (consumers)

Burning fossil fuels


Forest fires

Plants (producers)




Carbon in plants (producers)

Carbon in animals (consumers)

Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean

Marine food webs Producers, consumers, decomposers

Carbon in fossil fuels



in limestone or dolomite sediments




Pathway affected by humans

Natural pathway

Fig. 3-17, p. 66

Carbon dioxide in marine system
Carbon Dioxide in Marine System

  • Oceans are a major _____________.

  • Oceans are warming

    • Increased capacity as a sink, but….

  • Dissolved CO2 creates ________________________.

    • Decreases ocean pH (ocean acidification)

    • More to come later on this…

The carbon cycle
The Carbon Cycle

  • NASA: Keeping Up with Carbon

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrIr3xDhQ0E