Seminar in Economic Policy Presentation Presented to: Mr. Mazhar Khan Presented by: Tahira Hassan- 6062 Saima Hussain- 5537 Mariam Mamsa-
Social Sector Development Education Sector
Education system in Paksitan • There are five levels of education in Pakistan: • Primary (grades 1 through 5) • Middle (grades 6 through 8) • High/secondary (grades 9 & 10) • Intermediate ( grades 11 & 12) • University
Stats pertaining to Pakistan • Overall literacy rate of Pakistan is 56% out of which male & female literacy rate is 63% and 36% respectively • Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in the country of 72.38% whereas Musa Khel has the lowest rate at 10.37% • Enrollment rate is 87.3% for primary, 44% for secondary and 4.6% for post secondary education across the country. • Statistics also testify low profile of Pakistan in education. It stands fifth in SAARC and comes after Maldives, Srilanka, India and Bhutan because of its fragile literacy rate. • Pakistan is among those twelve countries of the world which are spending less than 2% of GDP on education, whereas, countries like USA, UK, Japan and Italy are spending more than 5% of GDP on education.
Stats contd.. • Illiterate population has increased from 22 million in 1961 to 48 million by 2005. It is feared that by 2015, illiterate population in Pakistan may rise to 52 million • Literacy rates in the urban area is 71% whereas in the rural area it is 49%. 69% for men and 44% for women. • There are currently 0.23 million institutions in the country with 33.38 million students enrolled and a teaching staff of 1.35 million • Public sector: 0.15 million institutions to catering to 22 million students & offers employment to 0.723 million teaching staff • Private sector: 0.08 million institutions catering to 12 million students & employing 0.632 million teaching staff
Statistical Measures in Education Sector • Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER)- gives a rough estimation of education level from kindergarten to postgraduate level • Number of students in all levels regardless of age as a percentage of population of official school age • Net Enrollment Ratio- Net enrollment is the number of students enrolled in a level of education who belong in the relevant age group, as a percentage of the population in that age group.
Stats.. • Total primary Net Enrolment Ratio is 66% which considerably lower than 86% of regional average • Secondary Gross enrolment ratio is 30% which is only half of the developing countries’ average of 60% and lower than regional average of 51% • Our tertiary GER is only 4.5% whereas the regional average is more than double of our figure of 11% • Pakistan has the third largest number of out-of-school children of 6.8 m
Higher Education Commission • Charter granted to 28 new universities both public and private • Enrolment has gone up by 124% since 2002 to 2008 • There is a narrowing gender gap due to providing equal opportunity for education to females and males
Education for All- Global Monitoring UNESCO report 2008 • only 11 per cent of the total education budget is allocated for the higher education sector. • Public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public spending is close to 8% only and Pakistan ranks among the bottom 5 countries of the world
Criticisms of education system in pakistan • More funds are spent by the HEC on purchase of scientific equipment which is kept locked up. Alternatively funds must be utilized on training Pakistan’s scientists • Severe gender disparity in enrollment levels • Resource allocations- defense, general administration & debt servicing, external borrowing takes precedence
Criticisms continued Female/Male literacy ratio
Key challenges for Pakistan • According to a recent World Bank report, the literacy rate has jumped from 45% to 54% from 2002 to 2006 • Net primary enrollment has increased from 42% to 52% • Participation rates remain the lowest in south Asia. Vast male; female, urban rural disparities • Only 22% of girls complete primary education compared with 47% boys • School drop out rates at secondary levels are alarming. Only 30% Pakistani children receive secondary education and 19% attend upper secondary schools
Global trends affecting education • Demography • Urbanization • Migration • Health • Economic & Political systems
Education For All- Goals to be achieved by 2015 • Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education • Ensuring that by 2015 all children particularly girls have access to, and complete free and compulsory primary education • Ensuring that learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning & life skills programs • Achieving a 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015 • Eliminating gender disparities in primary & secondary education by 2005 and achieving gender equality in education by 2015 • Achieving recognized and measurable learning outcomes especially in literacy, innumeracy and essential life skills.
Health • Basic infrastructure and sanitation • Mortality Rate • Malnourishment • Health Care Facilities
Infrastructure and Sanitation • Only 40% of population used improved sanitation facilities in 2006 in the rural areas • Municipal sewage is a major source of pollution • Drinking water recourses • Well water • River water • Bottled water
Infrastructure and Sanitation Water Issues • Water logging and salinity (due to irrigation) • Punjab province draws its major share of drinking water from the natural ground water aquifer • According to WHO, groundwater of Lahore up to 700-ft deep has been seriously contaminated and should not be used for human consumption
Infrastructure and Sanitation SANITATION • About 2 million wet tonnes of human excreta are annually produced in the urban sector of which around 50% go into water bodies to pollute them • In Pakistan, drinking water supply lines and open sewage drains in the streets are laid side by side • 9000 million gallons of wastewater having 20,000 tons of BOD5 loading are daily discharged into water bodies from the industrial sector • Excessive and uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides promotes contaminated agricultural run off
Infrastructure and Sanitation • The WHO reports that 25-30% of all hospital admissions are connected to water borne bacterial and parasitic conditions, with 60% of infant deaths caused by water infections • Extreme pollution of river Ravi has destroyed the once existing 42 species of fish and the bird life around the river has migrated to other areas
Infrastructure and Sanitation Solution • WWF has focused its attention on the issues of urban and industrial pollution. • It provides assistance to the industrial sector in reducing polluted discharges into air, water and soil.WWF-Pakistan enhances capacity of industrial sector so that they can implement environmental solutions. • Training workshops have been organized on the subjects of industrial waste management and waste minimization technology. • To promote environmental awareness of water pollution issues, a water pollution monitoring kit (mobile laboratory) was developed by WWF and launched in the four provinces of Pakistan. The kit is easy to use and is fabricated using cost effective material. It is capable of monitoring 14 pollutants.
Infrastructure and Sanitation MISSING FACILITIS • 46% of Pakistanis still do not have access to acceptable toilet facilities • Only 54% of this Pakistan's population has latrine and toilet facilities (Pakistan Federal Ministry, March 2006)
Mortality Rate Reasons for Mortality Rate • Mother and Child care • 297 deaths for every 100,000 live births • 10,400 maternal deaths annually • 80% of occurring maternity deaths are preventable • Diseases (diarrhea, malaria, TB, cancer, goiter, intestinal and skin diseases) • High Population Growth Rate • Lack of facilities
Infant Mortality Rate • In 2000, the infant mortality rate was 83 per 1,000 live births • Life expectancy at birth in 2007 was said to be 65 years by UNICEF • National Conservation Strategy (NCS) states that almost 40% of deaths are related to water borne diseases 1990 2007
Malnourishment Developing Nations Pakistan
Malnourishment • 30% of malnourished population in Pakistan consists of children under 5 years of age • The number of undernourished people in Pakistan had reached 45 million(UN WFP) • 26 million in the early 1990s • Problem increased due to food shortages and high prices • United Nations World Food Programme in collaboration with many companies in Pakistan is working towards this cause • Government looking into subsidizing food items
Health Care Facilities • Doctor patient Ratio: (as of 2007) 1:1,225 • Only 62,651 nurses all over the nation • 96,000 Lady Health Workers (primary heath care providers) • As per World Health Organization, Pakistan's total health expenditures amounted to 3.9% of GDP in 2005 • Per capita health expenditures were US$49 • The government provided 24.4% of total health expenditures (with the remainder being entirely private, out-of-pocket expenses)
GDP % Spend on Health in Pakistan 1993 1999 2005
Empowerment • Economic empowerment through • Education • Entrepreneurship • Women empowerment
Economic Empowerment throughEducation • Scholarships • State Grants • Financial Aid • Loans • Government Schools • Private Schools • NGO networks (TCF, ITA)