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Incident Reporting & Investigation for better emergency response & disaster management. A presentation By Rajnath Ram Joint Adviser (I), PNGRB. Contents . Definitions Incident type/ classifications Cause of incident/disasters Incident reporting Investigating incident

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incident reporting investigation for better emergency response disaster management

Incident Reporting & Investigationfor better emergency response & disaster management




Rajnath Ram

Joint Adviser (I), PNGRB

  • Definitions
  • Incident type/ classifications
  • Cause of incident/disasters
  • Incident reporting
  • Investigating incident
  • Developing action plan
  • Communicating the incident statistics
  • Managing documentation

Follow common definitions across your organization (refer PNGRB(Codes of practices for Emergency Response and disaster Management Plan) Regulations, 2010 and any other applicable statutory documents)

  • Incident
  • Emergency
  • Risk analysis, risk assessment, risk management
  • Degree of Emergency (L-I, L-II, L-III)
  • Onsite emergency
  • Offsite emergency
  • Disaster management Plan (DMP)

Encourage to use common definitions across your organization and among your contractors/third party agency through the written procedures, review and updation on continuous basis

incident type classifications
Incident Type/ Classifications

As per PNGRB regulations

  • Level-I
    • which can be effectively and safely managed within the site by the available resources;
    • no impact outside the site, location or installation.
incident type classifications1
Incident Type/ Classifications

Level-II :

  • Which cannot be effectively and safely managed with available resources
  • additional support is alerted or required;
  • has the potential to effect beyond the site
  • May require mutual aid;
incident type classifications2
Incident Type/ Classifications


  • an incident with off-site impact
  • could be catastrophic and is likely to affect the population, property and environment inside and outside the installation,
  • management and control is done by District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
incident type classifications3
Incident Type/ Classifications


  • Level-I & Level-2 :onsite emergency
  • Level-3: off-site emergency

For Level-III, till the District Authority step in, it should be the responsibility of the installations/units incharge to manage the emergency

consequences of incident
Consequences of Incident
  • The consequences of an Incident are fire explosion, blast waves, fast spreading flames, BLEVE, UVCE resulting in direct effects like damage to buildings/property, burns, fatalities.
  • The consequences of an Incident may be confined within the premises or may spill off-site triggering cascading effects.
  • An Incident in the neighborhood may sometimes cascade into an on-site emergency. It should be prevented or managed to avoid major emergency.
incident reporting
Incident reporting
  • As per PNGRB (Technical Standards and Specifications Including Safety Standards for City or Local Natural Gas Distribution Networks), Regulations 2008:
    • Incident reporting as per Enclosure-I of SCHEDULE-IE.
    • It must be read in conjunction with the PNGRB (Codes of practices for ERDMP) Regulations, 2010.
  • As per PNGRB (Codes of practices for ERDMP)Regulations, 2010
    • Any incident of L-II and L-III shall be reported
    • Preliminary report as per Schedule VI must reach within 48 hours to PNGRB
    • Detailed investigation report within a month
    • PNGRB can invoke penalty provision on Non-Compliance
  • Also report near miss incidents
why focus on near misses
Why Focus on Near Misses?
  • Establish Causes
  • Provide learning to prevent recurrences before they become Serious
  • Establish corrective actions
  • Improve our companies safety culture
  • Statistical safety data base

Nothing is learned from unreported incidents and the causes are left uncorrected!

why minor incidents go unreported
Why Minor Incidents Go Unreported
  • Fear of:
    • Supervisor/Manager Disapproval
    • Getting a Bad Reputation
    • Being terminated or disciplined
  • Not Wanting To:
    • Lose time from the job
    • Have a incident on their work record
    • Be the subject of or involved in an investigation
  • Not knowing why minor incidents should be reported or what near misses are.
  • Lack of Management follow-through in the past.
  • Fear of having a poor or blemished safety record.
encourage reporting incidents
Encourage Reporting Incidents
  • Ensuring all employees are told to report near miss incidents also.
  • Positively reinforcing each other when reporting near miss incidents.
    • Put penalty provision for not reporting
  • Reminding ourselves of its importance
  • Sharing successes—improve the work environment across the entire company.
  • Using the Emergency-O-Gram for initiation of the investigation and reporting of document
  • Make the incident reporting format readily available to all the employees.

INCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS WHY?*Prevent Reoccurrence*Valuable Asset to Management*Improve the Company's performance and Profitability






The ultimate purpose of investigations is to prevent future incidents.

incident investigation an example
Incident Investigation an example
  • As a rule of thumb, use the “5-W” principle!
  • Simply ask “Why” five (5) times.
  • Why did you slip and Fall in the hall by the water cooler ? <answer> Because the floor was wet.
  • Why was the floor wet? <answer> Because there was water on it.
  • Why was their water on the floor? <answer>I don’t know. It was coming out from underneath the water cooler.
  • Why was water coming out from under the water cooler?
  • <answer> I don’t know. Let’s look. There is a hole in the
  • drain pipe.
  • Why is there a hole in the drain pipe? <answer>It appears as if it rusted out.
incident investigation an example1
Incident Investigation an example

It was an Unsafe Condition, caused by an Unsafe Activity.

The rusted pipe was caused by lack of preventative maintenance, which was an unsafe activity. If there is “blame” where does it lie? Was there a preventative maintenance program?, Who was in charge of it. Why was it not checked? Should this be subject to disciplinary actions?


Steps to Incident Investigation

  • Manage the Incident Site
  • Collect factual Information
  • Record witness statements
  • Analyze the Facts
  • Investigations must produce factual information
  • Recommend Corrective Action
  • implement Corrective Action Follow-up
investigating incident
Investigating Incident

Essential Actions (planning)

  • Prepare a written procedure for investigations (also refer statutory requirements)
  • Develop an investigation report form that guides investigators
  • Define the company’s responsibilities in assisting investigations conducted by contractors on incident sites.
  • Make investigation procedures and forms available to employees and contractors.
  • Bring in external investigators to collect and verify data for incidents.

External investigators are third-party investigators/independent experts

investigating incident1
Investigating Incident

Essential Actions (verifying data and investigations)

  • At the beginning of an investigation, hold a meeting of all parties involved to:
    • review investigation goals and procedures
    • Fix specific roles and responsibilities of all participants
    • describe the types of data to be collected and how it will be verified and handled
    • Ensure all relevant documents available including statutory documents
    • Review and verify data reported on preliminary incident report
    • physically inspect the incident site and take photographs for inclusion in investigation report
    • Review the circumstances that led up to the incident
investigating incident2
Investigating Incident

Essential Actions (verifying data and investigations)

  • review operating conditions
  • Review all documents prepared as a part of the incident report
  • interview witnesses and other people who were involved in the incident or preparation of incident reports
  • compare new data to historical data to identify new problems and trends
  • Conduct root-cause analysis to further verify collected data and determine why the incident occurred.
  • Record all findings
  • Collect, if possible, incident data documented by government and insurance investigators for comparison purpose
  • Treat incident data confidential.

Employee responsibilities

  • RESPONSIBILITY to comply with all policies and procedures

RESPONSIBILITY to report all unsafe acts and conditions

RESPONSIBILITY to be a team member - to assist others in compliance

RESPONSIBILITY to offer suggestions that may have a positive impact on safety


Steps to Develop Action Plan (based on Recommendation by the third party independent investigation) 1. Identify corrective actions2. Assigning responsibility3. Establish deadline for actions and follow-up4. Obtain management approval5. Communicate results

communicating the incident statistics
Communicating the incident statistics
  • To the employees of the organizations
  • to the controlling authorities (full report)
    • Organizational head
    • Statutory organizations
  • Encourage incident reporting
  • Investigate accidents immediately
  • Provide the investigation report within 48 hours of accident
  • Take leadership
  • Provide safety training
  • Conduct safety meeting
  • Mock drills exercise
  • Provide written rules
  • Assess Personal Protective Equipment
  • Follow technical, Safety & Health Regulations
  • Emergency Preparedness
  • Always go for Incident Investigations
  • Safety Consultations
  • Time based mitigation/action plan
  • Review & Revise Safety Program- Management of change