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Cervical Spondylomyelopathy : Wobbler. Cervical spinal cord compression (__________) as a result of caudal vertebral ______________or misarticulation . ____________breed dogs (Great danes and Dobermans) Signs Progressive hind-limb ataxia (wobbly gait)

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cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler
Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler
  • Cervical spinal cord compression (__________) as a result of caudal vertebral ______________or misarticulation.
    • ____________breed dogs (Great danes and Dobermans)
  • Signs
    • Progressive hind-limb ataxia (wobbly gait)
    • Pelvic limbs cross each other when walking
    • Abduct widely/tend to collapse
    • May drag toes (wears dorsal surface of nails)
    • Impaired __________________________
    • Signs may also be present in front limb
    • Crouching stance with downward flexed neck
    • Rigid flexion of neck; may have neck pain
cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler1
Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler
  • Dx
    • Radiographs to show malalignment and narrowing of spinal canal
    • _________________ is essential to locate the region of compression
    • CT and MRI if available
cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler2
Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler
  • Rx—without treatment, prognosis is ________
    • Medical
      • Anti-inflammatory doses of corticosteroids
      • Neck brace
      • Cage confinement
    • Surgical
      • Decompression of spinal cord by ___________________
      • Stabilize vertebral column
        • screws and wire dorsally
        • spinal fusion ventrally
cervical spondylomyelopathy wobbler3
Cervical Spondylomyelopathy: Wobbler
  • Client info
    • Prognosis is _______________________
    • Most likely a hereditary disease
    • Multiple levels of compression less favorable prognosis than a single area of compression
    • Surgery is risky and costly
degenerative myelopathy
Degenerative Myelopathy
  • Etiology—unclear
    • May be __________________response to antigen in nerv sys
    • Degeneration of ______________ matter in ascending and descending tracts
    • ~ Multiple sclerosis - humans
  • Signs
    • Mainly in G Shep and Shep mixes (>5 yr)
    • Progressive ataxia and paresis of hind limbs (5-6 months)
    • Loss of proprioception is first sign
    • Dog “falls down” when trying to ____________________
    • Muscle wasting of back muscles along caudal thoracic and lumbosacral areas
    • Symptoms progress until animal is unable to support weight on hind limbs
degenerative myelopathy1
Degenerative Myelopathy
  • Dx—
    • Neurologic Exam
      • ↓ proprioception
      • ↑ _________________________
      • Lack of pain
      • Normal sphincter tone; normal panniculus

(pin prick) reflex

      • Radiographs usually normal
  • Rx—none; symptoms will progress to

paralysis

  • Client info—
    • Degenerative myelopathy is a progressive, ____________ disease
    • Although symptoms are similar at early stages, it is a different disease from hip dysplasia
    • When dog cannot support weight, quality of life should be evaluated
deafness
Deafness

1) Damage to auditory pathway

  • chronic otitis
  • rupture of _______________
  • damage to middle ear (ossicles)

2) Damage to

auditory nerve

deafness1
Deafness

3) Hereditary or congenital

  • Bull terriers, Dobes, Rotts, Pointers, blue-eyed white cats, Dalmations, Aust Heelers, Aust shepherds, Eng setters, Catahoula

4) Related to drug therapy

_________________________ (gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin

  • Topical polymyxin B
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlorhexidine w/ centrimide

5) Normal old age—usually due to atrophy of nerve ganglia or cochlear hair cells (also loud rock music)

deafness2
Deafness
  • Dx—
    • Inability to rouse sleeping animal with loud

noise (e,g,. blast from air horn) is diagnostic

  • Rx—No treatment is available in most cases
    • Hearing aids are available for animals,

but most will not tolerate something in ear canal

  • Client info
    • Hearing loss is ______________________________
    • If hereditary, do not breed
    • Animals can be taught to hand signals rather than words
    • Animals should not be off leash when outside
    • Hearing aids are available for dogs but are usually not tolerated; would only be appropriate for hearing impaired
laryngeal paralysis
Laryngeal Paralysis
  • 3 types—always be cautious of

laryngeal paralysis because of the

chance of _____________________

    • Hereditary—seen in Bouvier des Flandres and Siberian Huskies
      • Seen at 4-6 mo of age
    • Acquired—can occur from lead poisoning, rabies, trauma, inflammation of vagus nerve
      • 1.5 to 13 yr of age
    • Idiopathic—seen in middle-age to old large- and giant-breed dogs; castrated dogs and cats have a higher incidence than female and non-neutered males
laryngeal paralysis1
Laryngeal Paralysis
  • Signs—
    • Inspiratory __________________________
    • Resp distress
    • Loss of endurance
    • Voice change
    • Dyspnea/cyanosis/complete resp collapse
  • Dx— ________________________ will show laryngeal abductor m. (away from midline) dysfunction
  • Rx—surgical intervention including:
    • Arytenoidectomy
    • Removal of vocal folds
  • Client info—prognosis is guarded to good; do not breed if hereditary
megaesophagus
Megaesophagus
  • Causes-lack of _______________________ (3 types):
    • Hereditary—a gene for the disease is identified in wire-haired fox terriers and min schnauzers
    • Congenital—G Danes, G Shepherd, I Set, Newfound, Shar-Peis, greyhounds (no gene ID’ed)
      • evident about weaning time when solid food is introduced
      • Due to incomplete nerve development in esophagus
    • Acquired—may be seen at any age; Pb tox; may be associated with neuropathies (e.g., myasthenia gravis, tick paralysis)
  • Signs
    • _______________________ of undigested food
    • Respiratory problems (aspiration pneumonia)
    • Lack of growth
megaesophagus1
Megaesophagus

Dx—barium swallow

Esophagus is 3 times normal diameter

megaesophagus2
Megaesophagus
  • Rx—
    • ____________________ feeding (on platform, stairs)
    • Liquid or soft diet high in calories
    • Give several small feedings daily
    • Gastrostomy tube (long term) is an option
  • Client info
    • Prognosis—guarded to poor
    • Treatment aim is to reduce clinical signs and prevent __________________________________________
    • There is no cure
tick paralysis
Tick Paralysis
  • Cause—female tick (Dermacenter variablis, D. andersoni) → salivary ________________________
    • Neurotoxin interfered with Ach at neuromuscular jct
    • Not seen in cats; humans are affected
  • Signs—
    • Gradual onset of ____________ changes and hind-limb ataxia (motor deficit) progressing to a flaccid, ascending paralysis (1-3 d)
    • Sensation is intact
    • Ticks on the dog
  • Rx
    • Remove ticks (manually or with dip)
      • Usually resolves in 1-3 d
    • Supportive care until dog recovers
      • Ventilation required for resp paralysis
coonhound paralysis polyradiculoneuritis
Coonhound Paralysis (Polyradiculoneuritis )

-thought to be an immune response to an unknown etiologic factor in ________________________________

-some dogs will get it 1-2 wk after exposure, others exposed to same raccoon will not

  • Signs—(similar to tick paralysis and ____________________)
    • Weakness begins in hind limbs with paralysis progressing rapidly to a flaccid tetraplegia
    • Alert, afebrile animal
    • Loss of spinal reflexes (patella tap, etc)
    • Loss of voice; labored breathing; inability to

lift head

    • May die of resp failure
    • May last for 2-3 mo (usually good Px)
  • Rx—supportive nursing care
  • Client info—
    • Dogs can be affected without exposure to raccoon
    • May require long-term nursing care
    • Some animals will regain total function, while more severely affected animals may not
idiopathic facial nerve paralysis
Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis
  • Etiology—unknown
  • Occurrence
    • C Span, Corgis, Boxers, E Set, DLH cats
  • Signs—
    • Older dogs (>5 y)
    • ________________ droop
    • Lip ____________________
    • Sialosis (drooling)
    • Deviation of nose
    • Collection of food in paralyzed side of mouth
    • Absence of menace and palpebral reflex
idiopathic facial nerve paralysis1
Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis
  • Rx—efficacy of corticosteroids unknown
    • Artificial tears to prevent___________________
    • Keep oral cavity clear of food
  • Client info—
    • Cause is unknown
    • Complete recovery does not usually occur
    • May develop ____________________________ (dry eye)
    • Animals may require life-long maintenance