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Teaching of Algebra in the Czech Republic. Jarmila Novotná Charles Un iversity in Prague, Faculty of Education Department of M at h emati cs and Mathematical Education e-mail: jarmila.novotna@pedf.cuni.cz. Czech Educational System.

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teaching of algebra in the czech republic

Teaching of Algebra in the Czech Republic

Jarmila Novotná

Charles University in Prague,

Faculty of Education

Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Education

e-mail: jarmila.novotna@pedf.cuni.cz

czech educational system
Czech Educational System
  • tradition of education in Czech history (population groups which would not achieve any education in other countries were often educated, e.g. Hussite women in the 15th century), the general literacy in the 1930s was of higher standards than were common in the rest of Europe
  • Charles University was established in 1348 (the first European University east of Germany)
  • Comenius - 17th century
  • compulsory six-year school attendance was enacted in 1774
  • influence of the Soviet tradition, from which schools were only freed after 1989

From the history

teaching of algebra in the czech republic1
Teaching of algebra in the Czech Republic

Pre-algebra and algebra in the compulsory education

Three programmes:

Basic School

General School

National School

teaching of algebra in the czech republic2
Teaching of algebra in the Czech Republic

Specific aims of mathematics

  • Mathematics together with the Czech language form the educational infrastructure of the basic school. Mathematics provides pupils with the knowledge and skills necessary for everyday life and prepares the foundations for successful development through professional training and further study at upper secondary schools. It develops pupils’ intellectual abilities, their memory, imagination, creativity, abstract thinking and ability to reason logically. At the same time it contributes to the development of personal qualities, such as patience, diligence, critical thinking.
  • Knowledge and skills acquired in mathematics are the preconditions for success in the sciences, economics, technology and the use of computers.
teaching of algebra in the czech republic3
Teaching of algebra in the Czech Republic

Specific aims of mathematics

Teaching of mathematics supports pupils’ learning to:

  • use variables, understand what they represent, solve equations and inequalities and use them when solving word problems
  • record and express graphically relationships between quantitative phenomena in nature and in society and work with certain functions when solving word problems
  • prove simple theorems and conclude logical results from given assumptions
teaching of algebra in the czech republic4
Teaching of algebra in the Czech Republic

The structure

of the schools subject mathematics

Main parts of mathematics

  • Arithmetic
  • Algebra
  • Geometry
  • Applications of mathematics

The relation to other subjects

The language of algebra

Algebraic culture

teaching of algebra in the czech republic5
Teaching of algebra in the Czech Republic

Algebra in Standards

for the compulsory level

  • Expressions

Polynomials; Polynomial fractions

  • Equations

Equivalent equations; Linear equations; Quadratic equations; Systems of linear equations

  • Functions

Coordinate system; Functions; Direct and indirect proportionality; Linear functions; Quadratic functions; Trigonometric functions

programme basic school
Programme: Basic School

Programme: General School

  • Core of the learning programme
  • Topic
  • Subtopic (details)


programme basic school1
Programme: Basic School
  • 5th grade
  • Tables, graphs, diagrams
  • 6th grade
  • Consolidation of knowledge and skills
  • 7th grade
  • Direct and indirect proportions
  • 8th grade
  • Powers with natural exponents
  • Expressions
  • Linear equations
  • 9th grade
  • Polynomial functions, Solving equations with the unknown in the
  • denominator
  • Systems of linear equations with two variables
  • Functions
programme general school
Programme: General School
  • 6th grade
  • Core:Good mastering of numerical operations with natural and decimal; drawing
  • Word problems
  • Pre-algebra (expressions, variable, function and its graph, linear equations)
  • 7th grade
  • Core: Dependences, functions, orientation towards applications
  • Linear equations and linear functions
  • 8th grade
  • Core: Good mastering algebraic language, numerical mathematics; geometrical constructions
  • Calculations with polynomials
  • 9th grade
  • Core: Knowledge necessary for mathematical applications
  • Algebraic technique
  • Functions

Basic knowledge about sets and propositions

  • Expressions

Polynomials; Polynomial fractions; Expressions with powers and roots

  • Algebraic equations and inequalities
  • Functions

Basic concepts; Rational functions; Quadratic functions; Exponential and logarithmic functions

  • Trigonometry; Combinatorics, probability and statistics; Sequences

Algebra in Standards for

the upper-secondary level (Gymnázium)

briefly about teaching in the soviet union
Briefly about teaching in the Soviet Union
  • Algebra started in the 6th grade (12-year old pupils)
  • In the 6th, 7th and 8th grades, it covered: Algebraic expressions, equations, inequalities, functions, sequences (arithmetical, geometrical, oscillating and Fibonacci)
  • Two main approaches: calculative, scientific


Entrance exams for important Universities based on complicated manipulations with algebraic expressions and functions



The idea of “a big nation” can be clearly seen – only about 1.5 %

of students understood algebra, but these were excellent