Chapter twenty one
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Chapter Twenty-One. Understanding Securities Markets and Investments. Traditional Investment Vehicles. Securities – certificates of part ownership of a firm Bought and sold through an account executive or stockbroker The primary market

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Chapter twenty one

Chapter Twenty-One

Understanding Securities Markets and Investments

Traditional investment vehicles
Traditional Investment Vehicles

Securities – certificates of

part ownership of a firm

  • Bought and sold through an

    account executive or stockbroker

  • The primary market

    • investor purchases financial securities directly from the

      issuer of those securities

    • IPO

  • How securities are bought and sold
    How Securities Are Bought and Sold

    • The secondary market

      • Investor purchases securities from other investors

      • Securities exchange

        • financial securities traded between investors

        • New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), American Stock Exchange

      • Over-the-counter (OTC) market

        • buy and sell stock not listed on a securities exchange

        • Nasdaq—system through which most OTC stocks are traded

    Flow of securities in secondary markets
    Flow of Securities in Secondary Markets

    Criteria for being listed on the nyse
    Criteria for Being Listed on the NYSE

    • Annual earnings = 2.5 M last tax year

    • Publicly held stock = 1.1 M shares

    • Value of Publicly held stock=100M

    • # of stockholders with 100 shares=2000

    The mechanics of a transaction
    The mechanics of a transaction

    • Market order

      • a security purchased or sold at the current market price

    • Limit order

      • a security bought or sold at a price that is equal to or better than some specified price

    • Discretionary order

      • broker decides when to execute the transaction and at what price

        So what keeps an honest broker honest?

    Regulation of securities trading
    Regulation of Securities Trading

    • State regulation

      • States require registration of stock issues and licensing of brokers and securities dealers

    • Federal regulation

      • Securities Act of 1933 (Truth in Securities Act)

        • Requires registration statement & prospectus describing a new security be fully disclosed

      • Sarbanes-Oxley Act - 2002

        • Protects the validity of financial info in the registration statement-also, can’t alter or destroy company files

      • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

        • enforces federal securities regulations

    How do securities earn you income
    How Do Securities Earn You Income?

    Securities (common and preferred stock) offer dividend income, but firm is not required to pay this

    If they do …

    • Dividend—cash payments to stockholders

    • Stock dividend—payment as additional stock

    Other investment buzz words
    Other investment Buzz words

    • Capital gain/loss— the difference between a security’s purchase price and its selling price

    • Stock Splits- same value cut into smaller pieces, but stock becomes more desired to buyers because the price is more affordable.

    • Market value—the price of one share of a stock at a particular time

    Other traditional investment vehicles
    Other Traditional Investment Vehicles

    1) Government bonds - Risk free and very liquid,

    but pay low interest

    • Treasury bills —$10,000 minimum; less than 1year maturity 3% int

    • Treasury notes — $1000-5000 minimum;1-10 yr maturity

    • Treasury bonds—$1,000 min;10-30 yr maturity (long bond)

    • Savings bonds — sold in $25 units: (EE bonds) purchased for ½ maturity value

    Other traditional investment vehicles1
    Other Traditional Investment Vehicles

    3) Real estate

    • Advantage

      • hedge against inflation-value often goes up

    • Disadvantages

      • Risk of losing value due to deteriorating location

      • buyers may be difficult to locate

      • declining real estate market at time of sale

      • heavy burden of taxes, mortgage interest, and installment payments

    Other traditional investment alternatives
    Other Traditional Investment Alternatives

    2) Mutual funds - combines the funds of many individual

    investors and invests them in multiple securities

    a) Managed funds

    Professional fund manager chooses securities in the fund

    b) Index funds

    Managers only buy stocks or bonds contained in an index (such as Standard & Poor’s 500)


    Investment company


    Security averages
    Security averages

    An average of the current market prices of selected securities

    • Dow Jones Industrial Average

      • 30 leading industrial corporations

    • Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index

    • New York Stock Exchange Composite Index

    • Russell 3000 Index

    • Nasdaq Composite Index

    Other traditional investment vehicles2
    Other Traditional Investment Vehicles

    4) Bank accounts

    • Advantages—low risk & definite rates of return

    • Disadvantage—low investment returns

      • Types

        • CD’s

        • Passbook savings accounts

        • Interest bearing checking accounts

    Non traditional investment vehicles
    Non-Traditional Investment Vehicles

    • Commodities Futures

    • Precious metals

    • Gemstones

    • Coins

    • Antiques

    • Collectibles