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C# Introduction. ISYS 350. Visual Studio 2010 Demo. Start page: New project/ Open project/ Recent projects Starting project: File/New Project/ C# Windows Windows form application Project name Project windows: Form design view/Form code view Solution Explorer

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visual studio 2010 demo
Visual Studio 2010 Demo
  • Start page: New project/ Open project/Recent projects
  • Starting project:
      • File/New Project/
        • C#
        • Windows
          • Windows form application
        • Project name
  • Project windows:
    • Form design view/Form code view
    • Solution Explorer
      • View/Solution Explorer
    • Server Explorer
    • Property Window
      • Properties and Events
    • ToolBox
    • Project/Add New Item
    • Property window example
introduction to c
Introduction to C#
  • Event-driven programming
    • The interface for a C# program consists of one or more forms, containing one or more controls (screen objects).
    • Form and controls have events that can respond to. Typical events include clicking a mouse button, type a character on the keyboard, changing a value, etc.
    • Event procedure
slide4
Form
  • Properties:
    • Name, FormBorderStyle, Text, BackColor, BackImage, Opacity
  • Events:
    • Load, FormClosing, FormClosed
    • GotFocus, LostFocus
    • MouseHover, Click, DoubleCLick
typical controls
Typical Controls
  • TextBox
  • Label
  • Button
  • CheckBox
  • RadioButton
  • ListBox
  • ComboBox
  • PictureBox
text box
Text Box
  • Properties:
    • AutoSize, BorderStyle, CauseValidation, Enabled, Locked, Multiline, PasswordChar, ReadOnly, ScrollBar, TabIndex, Text, Visible, WordWrap, etc.
  • Properties can be set at the design time or at the run time using code.
  • To refer to a property:
    • ControlName.PropertyName
    • Ex. TextBox1.Text
    • Note: The Text property is a string data type and automatically inherits the properties and methods of the string data type.
typical c programming tasks
Typical C# Programming Tasks
  • Creating the GUI elements that make up the application’s user interface.
    • Visualize the application.
    • Make a list of the controls needed.
  • Setting the properties of the GUI elements
  • Writing procedures that respond to events and perform other operations.
to add an event procedure
To Add an Event-Procedure
  • 1. Select the Properties window
  • 2. Click Events button
  • 3. Select the event and double-click it.
  • Note: Every control has a default event.
      • Form: Load event
      • Button control: Click event
      • Textbox: Text Changed event
    • To add the default event procedure, simply double-click the control.
slide9
Demo

FirstName

LastName

FullName

.Control properties

.Event: Click, MouseMove, FormLoad, etc.

.Event procedures

FullName: textBox3.Text textBox3.Text = textBox1.Text + " " + textBox2.Text;

Demo: Text alignment (TextAlign property)

slide10
Demo

Num1

Num2

Sum =

.Control properties

.Event: Click, MouseMove, FormLoad, etc.

.Event procedures

Sum: textBox3.Text = (double.Parse(textBox1.Text) + double.Parse(textBox2.Text)).ToString();

c project
C# Project
  • The execution starts from the Main method which is found in the Program.cs file.
    • Solution/Program.cs
    • Contain the startup code
      • Example: Application.Run(new Form1());
variable names
Variable Names
  • A variable name identifies a variable
  • Always choose a meaningful name for variables
  • Basic naming conventions are:
    • the first character must be a letter (upper or lowercase) or an underscore (_)
    • the name cannot contain spaces
    • do not use C# keywords or reserved words
  • Variable name is case sensitive
declare a variable
Declare a Variable
  • C# is a strongly typed language. This means that when a variable is defined we have to specify what type of data the variable will hold.
  • DataType VaraibleName;
  • A C# statement ends with “;”
string datatype
string DataType
  • string Variables:
  • Examples:

string empName;

string firstName, lastAddress, fullName;

  • String concatenation: +
  • Examples:

fullName = firstName + lastName;

MessageBox.Show(“Total is “ + 25.75);

numeric data types
Numeric Data Types
  • int, double, decimal
  • Examples:

double mydouble=12.7, rate=0.07;

int Counter = 0;

the decimal data type
The decimal Data Type
  • In C#, the decimal keyword indicates a 128-bit data type (16 bytes).
  • Compared to double types, it has more precision and a smaller range, which makes it appropriate for financial and monetary calculations.
  • Be sure to add the letter M (or m) to a decimal value:

decimal payRate = 28.75m;

decimal price = 8.95M;

inputting and outputting numeric values
Inputting and Outputting Numeric Values
  • Input collected from the keyboard are considered combinations of characters (or string literals) even if they look like a number to you
  • A TextBox control reads keyboard input, such as 25.65. However, the TextBox treats it as a string, not a number.
  • In C#, use the following Parse methods to convert string to numeric data types
    • int.Parse
    • double.Parse
    • decimal.Parse
  • Examples:

int hoursWorked = int.Parse(hoursWorkedTextBox1.Text);

double temperature = double.Parse(temperatureTextBox.Text);

Note: We can also use the .Net’s Convert class methods: ToDouble, ToInt, ToDecimal:

Example:

hoursWorked = Convert.ToDouble(textBox1.Text);

explicit conversion between numeric data types with cast operators
Explicit Conversion between Numeric Data Types with Cast Operators
  • C# allows you to explicitly convert among types, which is known as type casting
  • You can use the cast operator which is simply a pair of parentheses with the type keyword in it

int wholeNumber;

decimal moneyNumber = 4500m;

wholeNumber = (int) moneynumber;

double realNumber;

decimal moneyNUmber = 625.70m;

realNumber = (double) moneyNumber;

moneyNumber=(decimal) realNumber;

Note: All variables come with a ToString() method.

Note: We can also use the .Net’s Convert class methods

example
Example

double num1;

int num2;

decimal num3;

num1 = Convert.ToDouble(textBox1.Text);

num2 = Convert.ToInt16(textBox2.Text);

num3 = Convert.ToDecimal(num1) + Convert.ToDecimal(num2);

num3 = (decimal)num1 + (decimal)num2;

textBox3.Text = num3.ToString();

performing calculations
Performing Calculations
  • Basic calculations such as arithmetic calculation can be performed by math operators

Other calculations: Use Math class’s methods.

example21
Example

int dividend, divisor, quotient, remainder;

dividend = int.Parse(textBox1.Text);

divisor = int.Parse(textBox2.Text);

quotient = dividend / divisor;

remainder = dividend % divisor;

textBox3.Text = quotient.ToString();

textBox4.Text = remainder.ToString();

change machine to return smallest number of coins
Change Machine to Return Smallest Number of Coins

int changes, quarters, dimes, nickles, pennies;

changes = int.Parse(textBox1.Text);

quarters = changes / 25;

dimes = (changes % 25) / 10;

nickles = (changes - quarters * 25 - dimes * 10) / 5;

pennies = changes - quarters * 25 - dimes * 10 - nickles * 5;

textBox2.Text = quarters.ToString();

textBox3.Text = dimes.ToString();

textBox4.Text = nickles.ToString();

textBox5.Text = pennies.ToString();

fv pv 1 rate year
FV = PV * (1 +Rate) Year

double pv, rate, years, fv;

pv = double.Parse(textBox1.Text);

rate = double.Parse(textBox2.Text);

years = double.Parse(textBox3.Text);

fv = Math.Pow(pv * (1 + rate), years);

textBox4.Text = fv.ToString();

formatting numbers with the tostring method
Formatting Numbers with the ToString Method
  • The ToString method can optionally format a number to appear in a specific way
  • The following table lists the “format strings” and how they work with sample outputs
working with datetime data
Working with DateTime Data
  • Declare DateTime variable:
    • Example: DateTime mydate;
  • Convert date entered in a textbox to DateTime data:
    • Use Convert:
      • mydate = Convert.ToDateTime(textBox1.Text);
    • Use DateTime class Parse method:
      • mydate = DateTime.Parse(textBox1.Text);
comments
Comments
  • Line comment: //

// my comment

  • Block comment: /* …… */

/* comment 1

Comment 2

Comment n */