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DNS. DNS services Hostname to IP address translation Host aliasing Canonical and alias names Mail server aliasing Load distribution Replicated Web servers: set of IP addresses for one canonical name. DNS: Domain Name System. Root DNS Servers`. org DNS servers. edu DNS servers.

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dns domain name system
DNS services

Hostname to IP address translation

Host aliasing

Canonical and alias names

Mail server aliasing

Load distribution

Replicated Web servers: set of IP addresses for one canonical name

DNS: Domain Name System
distributed hierarchical database
Root DNS Servers`

org DNS servers

edu DNS servers

com DNS servers

DNS servers

DNS servers

DNS servers

DNS servers

DNS servers

Distributed, Hierarchical Database
dns root name servers
contacted by local name server that cannot resolve name

root name server:

contacts authoritative name server if name mapping not known

gets mapping

returns mapping to local name server

a Verisign, Dulles, VA

c Cogent, Herndon, VA (also Los Angeles)

d U Maryland College Park, MD

g US DoD Vienna, VA

h ARL Aberdeen, MD

j Verisign, ( 11 locations)

k RIPE London (also Amsterdam, Frankfurt)

i Autonomica, Stockholm (plus 3 other locations)

m WIDE Tokyo

e NASA Mt View, CA

f Internet Software C. Palo Alto, CA (and 17 other locations)

b USC-ISI Marina del Rey, CA

l ICANN Los Angeles, CA

DNS: Root name servers

13 root name servers worldwide

tld and authoritative servers
TLD and Authoritative Servers
  • Top-level domain (TLD) servers: responsible for com, org, net, edu, etc, and all top-level country domains cn, ca, fr, jp, uk etc.
    • Network solutions maintains servers for com TLD
    • Educause for edu TLD
  • Authoritative DNS servers: organization’s DNS servers, providing authoritative hostname to IP mappings for organization’s servers (e.g., Web and mail).
    • Can be maintained by organization or service provider
local name server
Local Name Server
  • Each ISP (residential ISP, company, university) has one.
    • Also called “default name server”
  • When a host makes a DNS query, query is sent to its local DNS server
    • Acts as a proxy, forwards query into hierarchy.
iterative queries
iterated query:

contacted server replies with name of server to contact

“I don’t know this name, but ask this server”

local DNS server

Iterative Queries

root DNS server



TLD DNS server







authoritative DNS server

requesting host

recursive queries
root DNS server





TLD DNS server


local DNS server




authoritative DNS server

requesting host

Recursive queries

recursive query:

puts burden of name resolution on contacted name server

heavy load?

dns caching and updating records
once (any) name server learns mapping, it caches mapping

cache entries timeout (disappear) after some time

TLD servers typically cached in local name servers

Thus root name servers not often visited

DNS: caching and updating records
dns records
DNS: distributed db storing resource records (RR)


name is domain (e.g.

value is IP address of authoritative name server for this domain

RR format: (name, ttl, class, type, value

DNS records
  • Type=A
    • name is hostname
    • value is IP address
  • Type=CNAME
    • name is alias name for some “canonical” (the real) name
    • is really
    • value is canonical name
  • Type=MX
    • value is name of mail server associated with name

Aix 86400 IN A

86400 IN MX 5

86400 IN MX 10

Aix-4 86400 IN A

ftp 86400 IN CNAME

www 86400 IN CNAME

  • DNS uses UDP to exchange information
  • Query is initiated from a system call: gethostbyname, gethostbyaddr.
  • Try ipconfig /displaydns | more on windows.
web and http

path name

host name

Web and HTTP

First some jargon

  • Web page consists of objects
  • Object can be HTML file, JPEG image, Java applet, audio file,…
  • Web page consists of base HTML-file which includes several referenced objects
  • Each object is addressable by a URL
  • Example URL:
http overview
HTTP: hypertext transfer protocol

Web’s application layer protocol

client/server model

client: browser that requests, receives, “displays” Web objects

server: Web server sends objects in response to requests

HTTP 1.0: RFC 1945

HTTP 1.1: RFC 2068

HTTP overview

HTTP request

PC running


HTTP response

HTTP request



Apache Web


HTTP response

Mac running


http overview continued
Over TCP:

client initiates TCP connection (creates socket) to server, port 80

server accepts TCP connection from client

HTTP messages (application-layer protocol messages) exchanged between browser (HTTP client) and Web server (HTTP server)

TCP connection closed

HTTP overview (continued)
http request message
HTTP request message
  • two types of HTTP messages: request, response
  • HTTP request message:
    • ASCII (human-readable format)

request line


HEAD commands)

GET /somedir/page.html HTTP/1.1


User-agent: Mozilla/4.0

Connection: close


(extra carriage return, line feed)



Carriage return,

line feed

indicates end

of message

http response message
HTTP response message

status line


status code

status phrase)

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Connection close

Date: Thu, 06 Aug 1998 12:00:15 GMT

Server: Apache/1.3.0 (Unix)

Last-Modified: Mon, 22 Jun 1998 …...

Content-Length: 6821

Content-Type: text/html

data data data data data ...



data, e.g.,


HTML file

trying out http client side for yourself
1. Telnet to your favorite Web server:Trying out HTTP (client side) for yourself

Opens TCP connection to port 80

(default HTTP server port) at

Anything typed in sent

to port 80 at

telnet 80

  • 2. Type in a GET HTTP request:

By typing this in (hit carriage

return twice), you send

this minimal (but complete)

GET request to HTTP server

GET index.html / HTTP/1.1


3. Look at response message sent by HTTP server!

telnet 80


Connected to (

Escape character is '^]'.

GET /index.html /HTTP/1.1


HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Date: Wed, 28 Nov 2007 18:34:29 GMT

Server: Apache/2.0.52 (Scientific Linux)

Last-Modified: Mon, 29 Aug 2005 18:02:35 GMT

ETag: "1defce0-29c5-4cd2a4c0"

Accept-Ranges: bytes

Content-Length: 10693

Connection: close

Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1

Computer Science @ Florida State University

user server state cookies
HTTP is stateless.

two requests are treated independently.

Why stateless?

What is the problem with a stateless http?

E-commence: People buy things by making many requests. Need the ability to bind the requests from the same customer together.

Solution: cookies

User-server state: cookies
cookies keeping state cont


usual http request msg

usual http response +

Set-cookie: 1678

Cookie file

Cookie file

Cookie file

amazon: 1678

ebay: 8734

ebay: 8734

amazon: 1678

ebay: 8734




usual http request msg

cookie: 1678

usual http request msg

cookie: 1678

usual http response msg

usual http response msg




Cookies: keeping “state” (cont.)


creates ID

1678 for user

entry in backend




one week later:

cookies continued
What cookies can bring:


shopping carts


user session state (Web e-mail)

Cookies (continued)


  • Cookies and privacy:
  • cookies permit sites to learn a lot about you
  • you may supply name and e-mail to sites
  • search engines use redirection & cookies to learn yet more
  • advertising companies obtain info across sites
Some issues in HTTP:
      • Mainly due to its popularity
    • Cache support.
      • Insufficient in http/1.0, improved in http/1.1
      • Intermediate nodes, encoding, etc
    • Dynamically generated date
      • Not reliable in http/1.0
    • Performance
      • Persistent or non-persistent TCP connection
      • Download the whole file or part of a file
    • User preference
    • Security
content distribution
  • Akamai.
  • With thousands of servers all around the world.