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Fossilization. What’s a fossil and how are they formed?. I. Fossilization. A. The four types of fossils 1. mold fossils =a fossilized impression made in the substrate - a negative image of the organism. . 2. cast fossils =formed when a mold is filled in. .

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fossilization

Fossilization

What’s a fossil and how are they formed?

i fossilization
I. Fossilization

A. The four types of fossils

1. mold fossils=a fossilized impression made in the substrate - a negative image of the organism.

slide4
3. trace fossils = fossilized nests,

gastroliths, burrows, footprints, etc.

1. Signs that a living thing was

present

4. true form fossils= fossils of

the actual animal or an animal

part

slide5
B. True form and trace fossils

1. True form fossils

a. Commonly come from hard

parts of the body

b. Bones-The fossilized bones of a

tremendous number of

species of dinosaurs have

been found since 1818, when

the first dinosaur bone was

discovered.

slide6
c. Teeth and Claws- a broken tooth of a carnivore is found with another dinosaur's bones, especially those of herbivores. Lots of fossilized teeth have been found, including those of Albertosaurus and Iguanodon
slide7
d. Eggs Embryos and Nests-

1. first found in France in 1869

2. over 200 sites

3. nests and clutches of eggs tells

much about dinosaurs' nurturing

behavior

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e. Skin

1. had thick, bumpy skin

2. A 12-year-old girl discovered a

T. rex's bumpy skin imprint

f. Muscles, Tendons, Organs, Blood

Vessels

1. dinosaur "mummies", fossilized

imprints of dinosaur skin and

other features

2. extremely rare because these

soft tissues usually decay

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2. Trace Fossils

a. Trackways (sets of footprints)

- usually made in mud or fine

sand

- 1500 sites

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Fossil footprints have yielded information about:

* Speed and length of stride

* two or four legs

* stalking behavior

* existence of dinosaur

herds and

stampedes

* how the

tail is carried

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b. Toothmarks=generally appear on

bones

c. Gizzard Rocks = Gastroliths

- swallowed stones to help grind

their food

- Coprolite = fossilized feces

* up to 40 cm (16 inches) in

diameter

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d. Burrows and Nests

- considered trace fossils of the

animal that laid them