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The Development of the American Colonies. APUSH – Mr. Hesen. Southern Plantation Colonies - Characteristics Dominated by plantation economy: tobacco & rice Slavery in all colonies Large land holdings in the hands of the few Sparsely populated

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Southern Plantation Colonies - Characteristics

  • Dominated by plantation economy: tobacco & rice
  • Slavery in all colonies
  • Large land holdings in the hands of the few
  • Sparsely populated
  • All practiced some form of religious toleration
    • Church of England (Anglican Church) most prominent
  • Expansionary attitudes – need land for tobacco economy

The Chesapeake (Virginia & Maryland)

  • Virginia(founded in 1607 by Virginia Company)
  • Jamestown (1607): 1st permanent British colony in New World
  • Founded by VirginiaCompany that received charter from King James I
    • Main goals: Promise of gold, conversion of Amerindians to Christianity (just like Spain), and new passage through North America to the East Indies (Northwest Passage)
    • Major players: well-to-do adventurers

Virginia Charter

  • Overseas settlers given same rights of Englishmen in England
  • Foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies
  • Later revoked by King James

Early Tragedies:

  • Famine, disease, war with Indians
  • By 1625, only 1200 of the nearly 8,000 colonists survived
  • Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time"of 1610-1611

Captain John Smith

  • "He who will not work shall not eat."
  • His leadership helped Jamestown survive the “starving time”
  • Relations with the Powhatans - kidnapped
  • Smith "saved" by Pocahantas, Powhatan's daughter


  • Preserved the peace
    • Provided foodstuffs to settlers
    • Took hostage by colonists during war
    • Married John Rolfe
      • Taught how to cure tobacco

John Rolfe and Virginia

  • Tobacco crop economy: "Colony built on smoke"
  • Introduced new tough strain of tobacco and it became perhaps the most important reason for Virginia’s survival
  • Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economyPlantation system emerged

House of Burgesses

  • 1619
  • First colonial parliament in the British American colonies
  • Representative self-government
    • Representatives were wealthy land owners
    • Created to attract settlers to Virginia (by offering more liberty)
ap question of the day
AP Question of the Day

The Indian peoples of the New World

a. developed no advanced forms of civilization.

b. were divided into many diverse cultures speaking more than two thousand languages.

c. were all organized into the two large empires of the Incas and Aztecs.

d. relied primarily on nomadic herding of domesticated animals for their sustenance.

ap question of the day 1999
AP Question of the Day (1999)

The belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good is referred to as

a. the encomienda.

b. the mission of civilization.

c. the Evil Empire.

d. the Black Legend.



  • Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
  • Secured a portion of VA from King Charles
  • Catholic haven FOR profit
  • Catholics became a minority
  • Act of Toleration (1649)

Act of Toleration (1649)

  • Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians
  • Death penalty to all others (Jews)
  • Motive: Catholics protect faith
  • Result: Largest haven for Catholics in British colonies

Life (and Death) in the Chesapeake

  • Disease devastating early on (10 yrs off life expectancy)
  • Malaria, dysentery, typhoid fever
  • Half of all those born in early Virginia and Maryland did not live past age 20
  • Less than 25% of men lived to see 50 -- women only 40

Colonial Immigration

  • Most immigrants single men in late teens & early 20's; most died soon after arriving
  • Surviving males competed for extremely scarce women
  • Women married early (some came over as “tobacco brides”)
  • Most men could not find mates

Region stabilized with immunities to diseases

  • Rising influx of women
  • By 1700, Virginia was most populous colony
    • 50,000 colonists
    • MD was third with 30,000 colonists

The Tobacco Plantation Economy

  • First Africans arrived in 1619
  • Mostly indentured servants in early 17th century
  • White English indentured servants more predominant until late 17th century

"Headright" System

  • A person who paid for the passage of a white indentured servant received 50 acres of  land
  • Indentured servantsserved 5-7 years
  • By 1700, planters brought in about 100,000 indentured servants
    • 75% of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland
ap question of the day 2006

After the Act of Toleration in 1649, Maryland provided religious freedom for all

a. Jews

b. atheists

c. Protestants and Catholics

d. those who denied the divinity of Jesus


Colonial Slavery

  • West African coast (Senegal to Angola)
  • Originally captured by African coastal tribes who traded them to European and American buyers
  • About 40% died en route
  • Total – 50 million Africans

Colonial Slavery

  • Most  slaves came after 1700
  • Rising wages in England in 1680's reduced immigration to America
    • 1680s: black slaves outnumbered white servant
    • 1750: outnumbered whites 3 to 1

Slave Codes

  • Laws passed to control slave population
  • Most common codes stated:
    • Property for LIFE
    • It was a crime to teach literacy to slaves
    • Conversion to Christianity was not grounds for freedom

Slave Life

  • Slavery harshest in lower South (esp. SC); least harsh in middle colonies.
  • Brutal & isolated conditions in rice and indigo farming led to many deaths
  • Fresh import of slavery needed to sustain productivity

Slave Culture

  • Mixture of American and African folkways Gullahlanguage evolved on islands off South Carolina coast
    • Blended English with several African languages

While reading the section from Morgan’s Slave Counterpoint and the newspaper articles from Virginia:

  • Identify what Morgan’s argument is and his major supporting points;
  • Describe how the newspaper article authors describe their runaway slaves;
  • How does this go against everything you’ve ever known about American slavery?

Southern Society -- 18th Century

  • Southern class structure (from most powerful to least powerful)
  • Plantation owners at top of social ladder --Ruled region's economy and monopolized political power
  • Small farmers comprised largest social group
  • Considered far below the prestige and power of planter class Most lived meager existences; some owned 1 or 2 slaves

Landless Whites -- most were former indentured servants Indentured Servants (lowest of whites)

    • Decreased as black slavery increased Only black slaves were lower in the class structure
    • Constituted about 20% of colonial population by 1775

The Southern Characteristics

  • South remained underdeveloped
  • Few cities emerged
  • Life revolved around southern plantations
  • Poor transportation: waterways were principal means of transportation
rebellion in the colonies
Rebellion in the Colonies

Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)

Stono Rebellion (1739)

Leisler’s Rebellion (1689-1691)


Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism

  • Martin Luther – questioned authority of Pope
  • John Calvin – Predestination – Institutes of Christian Religion

Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism

  • England
    • Henry VIII split with Catholic Church
    • Forms Church of England
  • Puritans (Separatists) - broke from CoE
    • James I – kicked out many Puritans and threatened action against those who stayed

Pilgrims at Plymouth

  • Separatists leave England for Holland
  • Unhappy in Holland
  • Settled in America outside the Virginia Company
    • Miles Standish
      • Prominent New Englander
      • Negotiator

Mayflower Compact (1620)

  • Simple agreement – NOT CONSTITUTION
  • Form of crude government
  • Submit under the majority
  • 41 adult males
  • First attempt at a government in the colonies
  • William Bradford
    • Elected 30 times as governor of colony

The Bible Commonwealth

  • Charles I dismissed parliament in 1629
    • Massachusetts Bay Company – non-Separatist Puritans
  • Great Migration (1630s)
    • 70,000 English arrive in America
    • Looking for the West Indies (sugar)
    • John Winthrop – first governor – 19 years
      • “City on a Hill…”

Building the Bay Colony

  • Winthrop did not like DEMOCRACY
  • Freemen elected governor and General Court
    • “Visible Saints” – another name for Puritans
      • John Cotton – very devoted Puritan
      • Michael Wigglesworth – “Day of Doom” 1662

Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth

  • Anne Hutchinson
    • Challenged Puritan orthodoxy
    • Talked about sermons in home
    • Banished from MBC to Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams
    • Minister – challengedthe Church
    • Extreme Separatist - banished

New England Spreads Out

  • Connecticut established – Thomas Hooker
  • Fundamental Orders
    • First basic Constitution
    • Based on the consent of the people – popular sovereignty
    • Established a system of govt. by wealthy landowners

Religion and Politics in the MBC

  • Governing was open to all free males (2/5 population)
  • Puritans converted to Congregational Church
  • Town Hall meetings emerged as staple of Democracy
    • Men could vote in 1631; non-Christians and women could not vote

Purpose of government – serve God’s will

    • Congregational Church – people pay taxes to govt. supported church
      • Clergy men not allowed to hold political office
    • Cambridge Platform (1648)
      • MBC, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven – congregational form of church govt.

Decline of Puritanism

  • People began losing religious zeal
  • People started to move outside of the community and away from church
  • Jeremiad – used to scold parishioners to be more attentive to their faith
  • Half-Way Covenant (1662)
    • Church sought to attract more members by giving partial memberships to unconverted
ap question of the day1
AP Question of the Day

Which of the following was NOT a motive for European exploration?

  • The new Renaissance ideals of individualism
  • Spreading Christianity to the native peoples
  • Matrilineal and matrilocal societal norms
  • New technologies that enhanced travel

Dominion of New England

  • Established by James II in 1686
  • Mercantilism
    • Colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country
  • Navigation Laws
    • No trade with non-British colonies and allies

Sir Edmund Andros

  • Appointed by James II to oversee DNE
  • Colonists despised Andros and authoritarian ways
    • Town hall meetings abolished
    • Enforced unpopular laws – Navigation Laws
    • Overthrown in 1688 during Glorious Revolution in England
    • Parliament forms constitutional monarchy

How does the Puritan faith contribute to American character?

  • Democracy – town meetings and voting rights to church members
    • Regularly met to elect officials
  • Perfectionism – sought to create a “perfect society” based on God’s laws
    • Argued against slavery – first signs of problems between North and South
    • Protestant work ethic


    • Harvard College (1636) – first college in the colonies
      • Stress was placed on training ministers for church
    • Massachusetts School of Law (1642/1647)
      • Towns with 50 or more people
      • Required to have elementary education for children to read the Bible

New England Family

    • Strict! Conservative lifestyles!
    • Cooler climate + better crops = less disease
    • Life expectancy was 70 years old
    • Many children in families
    • Strong families and stability = strong social structure in N.E.