Introduction… • The skin, ,is often involved in sports injuries, which range from simple wounds to a variety of • This chapter discusses the and describes the categories of wounds and their care • Obviously, whenever a potential exposure to blood exists • This chapter presents the latest guidelines available for the prevention of accidental exposure to human blood
Introduction… • Next, the chapter covers skin conditions related to excessive exposure to • Any number of microorganisms, ranging from • Information in this chapter introduces the reader to the common types of , with helpful descriptions of signs and symptoms as well as recommended treatment and prevention protocols
Introductions… • The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCCA) guidelines on • This section also covers a related group of skin conditions resulting from allergic reactions to plant toxins and other materials
Introduction… • The skin, or , represents the largest organ of the human body • Two major layers of tissues, ,combine to form this complex organ, which has a total surface area of 3,000 square inches on the average adult (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [AAOS], 1991)
Introduction… • Located immediately beneath the skin is a that helps to insulate the body from the external environment
Introduction… • Skin regionally on the body: • Thicker skin • Such as the soles of the feet and palms of the hands • Thinner • The skin serves a variety of purposes, not the least of which is protecting the body from the environment • It is also essential for controlling , and regulating body temperature
Introduction… • Furthermore, • In addition, specialized cells within the (AAOS, 1991)
Introduction… • The skin can be damaged in a variety of ways during participation in sports. • External trauma can cause wounds, and • Skin infections can arise from a variety of . • In addition, ;these may be related to contact with plants or clothing and equipment that contain chemicals to which the athlete is sensitive
Wounds… • Sports injuries can cause many types of wounds, ranging from abrasions ( )to lacerations ( ),all of which may result in infection as well as cosmetic complications (American Medical Association [AMA], 1968).
Wounds… • The primary goals of initial wound care are through cleaning and bandaging
Wounds… • A primary concern when rendering first aid care for any wound is to . • The majority of wounds seen in sports are abrasions
Wounds… • A special type of abrasion, ,has been associated with playing surfaces in • Turf burns are the result of falls sustained on artificial turf that produce friction and heat
Treatment… • Treatment of wounds in sports can be considered as a • Initial first aid care is designed to control bleeding and guard the area from further injury • This is followed later with
Treatment… • An important aspect of wound care is protection of fellow , which can result in the transmission of HIV and HBV organisms. • Risk of exposure involves not only the wound itself,
Treatment… • Initial treatment of wounds follows first aid protocol described by the National Safety Council (1993). These are its guidelines: • Before rendering first aid, precautions should be taken against the possible transmission of HIV and HBV. . • Remove • Control bleeding with direct pressure over the wound site by applying some type of sterile dressing. • If dressing becomes soaked with blood, add more dressings on top. Do not remove blood soaked dressings.
Treatment… • although rare in sports, severe bleeding may not respond to direct pressure. • Increased hemorrhage control can be achieved via the application of a pressure bandage to a point over either the brachial or femoral arteries, depending on location of the wound. • Tourniquets should be applied only as a last resort; they are rarely needed in first aid for sports-related wounds. • All materials used to treat the wound– gauze pads, towels, and paper towels—should be stored for later disposal identified as containing biohazardous materials.
Treatment… • At the time of initial first aid, a decision must be made about whether the athlete will be allowed to return to participation. • Obviously, ;however, the majority of sports-related wounds are not life-threatening occurrences. • Another consideration is protection of other participants, coaches, • In sports such as wrestling, tackle football, and basketball, wounds must be dealt with in such a way to protect other athletes and the coaching staff from incidental exposure
Treatment… • Although research indicates the risk of transmission of HIV and exist (Calabrese, Haupt, & Hartman, 1993) • Once the initial bleeding is arrested, a • Small wounds are usually treatable by simply applying a bandage; . • Such bandages should be rechecked periodically during participation to ensure that they remain in proper position and bleeding has not resumed.
Treatment… • Lacerations , merit special attention because of their potential cosmetic impact. • Such wounds should be referred to a physician for further evaluation and possible stitches. • As a general rule, any wound going below the dermal layer that is more than a
Treatment… • The National Safety Council (1993) provides the following guidelines for cleaning wounds: • Personnel rendering first aid should protect themselves from • Wash the wound with a sterile gauze pad saturated with soap and water. .This is especially helpful when treating abrasions containing significant amounts of dirt and other foreign material.
Treatment… • Flush the wound with large amounts of water; • Use isopropyl rubbing alcohol to clean the skin adjacent to the wound site; . • Do not apply chemicals such as Mercurochrome, Merthiolate, or . • Apply a sterile, dry dressing and hold it in place with some type of bandage.
Treatment… • By definition, ,usually gauze, used to cover a wound to control bleeding and prevent contamination. • A bandage is used to hold the dressings in place. made elastic adhesive tape that can be directly applied to the skin and holds well even near a moving joint • Severe wounds .
HIV/HBV and the Athlete • Although the majority of national focus regarding these two viral infections has focused primarily on HIV, . • It is estimated that 300,000 new HBV infections occur each year. • In 1981, . • In 1986 there were approximately 2,000 people infected with HIV in the US; recent data from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate an estimated 1,106,400 diagnosed cases of HIV in the US through 2006 (CDC, 2008).
HIV/HBV and the Athlete • Athletes who (Calabrese, 1989). • The virus is spread primarily through blood-to-blood exposure, which can easily occur when sharing needles during intravenous drug use. • HBV is a . • Both HIV and HBV are carried within the blood of infected persons; . • This is especially true if another athlete who also has an open wound comes into contact with the blood of an infected person.
HIV/HBV and the Athlete • Although