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Computer Basics. Information technology (IT) is any computer-based tool that: People use to work with information. Computer Basics. What is a computer?. A data processing machine. speed & accuracy no intelligence functions without direct human intervention (use of stored program)

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Computer Basics


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    1. Computer Basics • Information technology (IT) is any computer-based tool that: • People use to work with information IT Fundamentals

    2. Computer Basics • What is a computer? A data processing machine • speed & accuracy • no intelligence • functions without direct human • intervention (use of stored program) • do not get tired • is consistent and never forgets • high storage capability Note: Computers can and do make mistakes. IT Fundamentals

    3. Computer Basics • Hardware – • Example: Keyboard, monitor • Software – • Example: Microsoft Excel IT Fundamentals

    4. Software • Two main types of software: • Application software - software used to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks • System software Operating system software - supports the application software and manages how the hardware devices work together Utility software - provides additional functionality to the operating system IT Fundamentals

    5. Application Software IT Fundamentals

    6. System Software IT Fundamentals

    7. Computer Categories • Personal digital assistant (PDA) - a small hand-held computer that performs simple tasks…. IT Fundamentals

    8. Notebook computer - a fully functional computer designed to be carried around and run on battery power Tablet computer - a pen-based computer that provides the screen capabilities of a PDA with the functional capabilities of a notebook or a desktop computer…. Computer Categories IT Fundamentals

    9. Desktop computer - the most popular choice for personal computing need Minicomputer - designed to meet the computing needs of several people simultaneously in a small to medium-size business environment Mainframe computer - designed to meet the computing needs of hundreds of people in a large business environment…. Computer Categories IT Fundamentals

    10. Supercomputers - the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer…. Computer Categories IT Fundamentals

    11. Memory • Binary digit (bit) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - the coding system that most personal computers use to represent, process, and store information • Byte - a group of eight bits • Computer Memory Cell • HIGH 1 • LOW 0 IT Fundamentals

    12. Computer Basics Kilobytes (KB) & Megabytes (MB), Gigabytes (GB), Terabytes (TB) IT Fundamentals

    13. The Components of a Computer • 1. THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) • Interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer • Contains the control unit and the arithmetic and logic unit • A. Control Unit • Directs and co-ordinates most of the operations in the computer. • Interprets each instruction and then initiates the action. • Machine Cycle Each instruction is completed before the next one begins MIPS (MILLION INSTRUCTIONS PER SECOND) IS ANOTHER MEASUREMENT OF CPU SPEED. IT Fundamentals

    14. The Components of a Computer STEP 1: The control unit fetches the maths problem from memory MEMORY STEP 4: The results of the maths problem are stored in memory STEP 2: The control unit decodes the maths problem and sends it to the ALU CPU ALU CONTROL UNIT STEP 3: The ALU executes the maths problem IT Fundamentals

    15. Processors • The System clock Types of processors (CPU’s) IT Fundamentals

    16. Data Path BUS (data path) The circuitry used to transmit data and instructions from one place to another within the CPU. AT = 8 bits 386SX = 16 bits 386DX,486 = 32 bits Pentium = 64 bits Word Size IT Fundamentals

    17. The ALU Speed of a Computer B. The Arithmetic and Logic Unit Performs arithmetic (+,-,*,/) and logical (if hours > 40) operations. C. Registers High speed temporary storage locations for data and instructions IT Fundamentals

    18. The Components of a Computer 2 MEMORY (Alias : Main memory, Internal memory, Primary memory) consist of one or more chips on the motherboard RAM (Random Access memory) When users discuss memory in a computer they are usually referring to RAM IT Fundamentals

    19. The Components of a Computer ROM (Read only memory) Contains BIOS and start-up programs. The BIOS are instructions to perform many elementary functions such as • send/receive characters on a communication line • move cursor Cache IT Fundamentals

    20. Ports Ports are external devices often attach to the computer by a port Serial ports Parallel ports Firewire Ports USB Ports IT Fundamentals

    21. The Components of a Computer IT Fundamentals