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The ‘Keep Britain Tidy’ symbol is regularly seen on packages in the UK. It is there to remind people to place their rubbish in a rubbish bin rather than dropping it on the floor. It is also aimed at making people aware that they have a responsibility to keep the environment around them tidy and litter free.

Polythene terephthalate (PET) is a material widely used for packaging, especially drinks containers. It is 90% recyclable and the symbol opposite reminds the consumer of this fact. Hopefully the consumer will place the used packaging in the recycle bin.

These are internationally recognisable symbols for recycling. They are seen on many packages. Again, it is to remind the consumer of the potential recycling properties of the package he/she is about to throw away. It is aimed at encouraging the consumer to recycling packaging rather than throwing it into a general rubbish bin.

The symbol opposite represent that the product inside has been tested to British standards. These symbols that are normally applied to non-food products such as electronic products or toys. However, they may still be applied to the packaging as a reference to the package itself being safe.

This symbol is to show that the company that make this product are a Registered Company. It is there to show that a company is legitimate and abides by the laws of the companies act.

The e-mark indicates that the average quantity of product in a batch of packages shall not be less than the nominal quantity stated on the label


Batch Production

CAD Input

CAD Input

Steel Dye Cutter

Vinyl Cutter

Hand folded along machine serrated edges

Exact folds are made using folding table

Large Scale Production

Small Scale Production


Commercial Printing Processes


Flexography (often abbreviated to flexo) is a form of printing process which utilizes a flexible relief plate. It is basically an updated version of letterpress that can be used for printing on almost any type of substrate including plastic, metallic films, cellophane, and paper.

Screen Printing

Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas.


Smart Materials

Smart materials are materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields.

Shape Memory: Memory Foam

Memory foam is an insulating material that responds to changes in temperature.

As the foam comes into contact with an increase in temperature, the foam realigns to provide a cushion, by softening at the points where the body increases the temperature of the foam.

When used in the form of a mattress, the foam moulds itself to the contours of the human body, providing excellent support at pressure points along the spine, legs, and elsewhere.

Phosphorescent Materials

Phosphorescent or afterglow/glow-in-the-dark materials produce visible or invisible light as a result of incident light of a shorter wavelength (i.e. X-rays, UV-rays, etc.), detectable only after the source of the light has been removed.


Packaging Materials

Corrugated Cardboard

This type of board is often used for packaging large electrical items. These large boxes (often brown in colour) protect the contents from damage. Corrugated board is strong because it is composed of a top and bottom layer and in between there is a triangulated section. A triangular section is very strong compared to its weight.

  • Advantages for consumer and manufacturer:

  • Cheap to produce

  • Light weight

  • Protective

  • Relatively robust (strong)

  • Recyclable

  • Biodegradable

  • Flexible


Packaging Materials


  • Cartonboard is mechanically strong.

  • Its stiffness, rigidity and toughness provide compression strength to protect products in distribution and use.

  • It can be cut, creased, folded and glued, giving the structural designer scope to produce functional and creative packaging.

  • Printing can provide important product information and attractive graphical designs.

  • Cartonboard can be embossed and hot foil stamped.

  • It can be laminated to other materials, such as aluminium foil, extrusion coated with plastics, such as PE, PP and PET, and given treatments which extend its range of appearance and performance properties.

Card Spiral Wound Tubing

  • - High strength

  • - 3D printable surface

  • Used for packaging, usually paper, posters etc.

  • Recyclable/Biodegradable


Packaging Materials

Polypropylene Sheet

  • Low cost

  • Easily processed

  • Good chemical compatibility

  • Good moisture barrier

  • Poor oxygen barrier

  • Film:

  • Food pouches and bags (most snack foods)

  • Clear wraps

  • Clear label stock

  • Often metallised and printed

Three dimensional parts:

Dairy tubs, moulded or thermoformed

Blow moulded bottles

Foam board

  • Foam Board is a sheet of foam with paper laminated front and back. 

  • Light

  • Rigid

  • Easy to cut

  • Relatively cheap  

  • Conveniently lightweight yet sturdy enough to resist denting.

  • Designed to facilitate clean, crisp cuts and edges.


Product Lifecycle

The Product Life Cycle (PLC) is based upon the biological life cycle.

For example, a seed is planted (introduction);

it begins to sprout (growth);

it shoots out leaves and puts down roots as it becomes an adult (maturity);

after a long period as an adult the plant begins to shrink and die out (decline).

New advertising and marketing

Special editions

Reductions in price

Products being sold in a wider range of shops

Targeted at a different market,

Products with added extras,

or even less of something such as calories, salt or fat.


Throwaway Society

The term describes a critical view of over-consumption and excessive production of short-lived or disposable items.

Packaging is one of the main offenders in landfill sites.

On your paper list 5 disposable items.

Then next to each (if possible) write a solution of what could be done to make them more environmentally friendly.


1 Point Perspective

In single or one-point perspective all the lines in an object or drawing will vanish at one point at the horizon line.



On a piece of A3 paper draw a simple box using one point perspective.

Make sure you start with and label a horizon line (HL) and a vanishing point (VP).

Those that want to challenge themselves, draw the box hollow like the images on either side of this text.


2 Point Perspective

In Figure 4a we can see that just by drawing equal sides of a box at an angle will not fool the eye into seeing the box as a three-dimensional object.

This is how most of us drew our first boxes and how some of us are still doing it. That is why perspective is so important to the artist, illustrator or draftsperson.



On a piece of A3 paper draw 3 cubes using two point perspective. One below the horizon line, one above the horizon line and one that is partly above and partly below the line.

Tip: Start with the edge nearest to you and make construction lines towards the vanishing points, Label VP and HL


Orthographic Drawing/Projection

An orthographic drawing is a way of showing a 3D object from three different directions.

Orthographic drawings are useful especially when a design has been developed to a stage whereby it is almost ready to manufacture.

Draw a quick example of an orthographic drawing of your phone or a simple shape if this is too challenging. Use construction lines like those below in red to ensure the views are aligned.


Isometric Drawing/Projection

Isometric Drawings are used by designers and architects to accurately show an objects shape.

Using isometric paper draw a cube on A4, then build onto your cube to recreate the shape below. Place the isometric paper underneath your paper.



Rendering is simply adding colour, shadows and highlights to an otherwise 2D image to give it 3D qualities.

Using 3 tone shading techniques, like above, render your isometric shape to give it a 3D appeal.

Based on the direction of light you have chosen give the object a drop shadow to give the appearance of it sitting on a surface.


Pop Up Card Mechanisms (Paper Engineering)

There are many different types of pop-up cards available, here are 3 examples.

Using 1 or 2 sheets of A4 paper make a simple pop-up mechanism, if you have time add some appropriate graphics to your card.