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  1. Full version of lecture handouts • WebCT for full version • Lingnan U homepage  WebCT  login in (student ID + email address)  SOC325  lecture handouts J.Y.Y. Kwong

  2. L4 - Assessment Methods (I) SOC325 Behavior at work Ref: Spector, Ch. 5 J.Y.Y. Kwong

  3. Recap - Uses of Job Analysis Job Evaluation Pay Job Analysis Criterion Development Performance Appraisal Recruitment & Selection Job Description Career development/Training J.Y.Y. Kwong

  4. Last week - Job Analysis • Two products: • List of tasks • KSAOs (one usage: for assigning wages) This week – Assessment methods • KSAOs (another usage: for selection) • Before we recruit candidate, we have to decide on how to assess the KSAOs? J.Y.Y. Kwong

  5. Exercise:Front desk manager – student’s hostel • Tasks • Motivate and lead subordinate • Planning and organizing • Handle complaints • KSAOs? • How to assess the KSAOs? (Discussion) J.Y.Y. Kwong

  6. Outline: • (I) Different types of assessment methods for personnel selection • Interviews • Biographical information • Work sample • Psychological tests • Assessment center • (II) Assessing test reliability and validity J.Y.Y. Kwong

  7. Types of assessment methods • Interview • Structured vs. unstructured interview • Biographical information • Previous work experience • Extra-curricular activities • Work sample • Simulate the actual work 落場示範,即場測試 J.Y.Y. Kwong

  8. Psychological Tests • A series of standardized questions or problems that assess a particular individual characteristic • Intelligence / Ability tests • Knowledge / Skills tests • Personality tests J.Y.Y. Kwong

  9. Ability Test

  10. Ability Tests • General ability to do or to learn sth (future oriented) ~ intelligence test • 1. Cognitive ability test • Numerical test • Verbal test • Spatial reasoning • 2. Psychomotor ability test J.Y.Y. Kwong

  11. Ability test • 1. Cognitive Ability Test • Numerical test • From simple arithmetic to ability to solve numerical problems J.Y.Y. Kwong

  12. Arithmetic Reasoning ••••• •••••••••••••The Arithmetic Reasoning test consists of 30 problems, similar to those below, for you to solve. Example: • If 12 men are needed to run four machines, how many men are needed to run 20 machines? •  A. 20. B. 48. C. 60. D. 80. • Now, try the following sample questions on your own: • 3. How many 36-passenger buses will it take to carry 144 people? •  A. 3. B. 4. C. 5. D. 6. J.Y.Y. Kwong

  13. Ability test • 1. Cognitive Ability Test • Verbal test • From spelling and grammar tests to ability to make conclusions from written information J.Y.Y. Kwong

  14. Word Knowledge ••••••• •••••••••••••••The Word Knowledge test is designed to measure your understanding of the meanings of words. The test consists of 35 underlined words. From the four choices, select the word or phrase meaning most nearly the same as the underlined word.Example: • Small most nearly means •  A. sturdy. B. round. C. cheap. D. little. • Now, try the following sample questions on your own: • 5. The wind is variable today. •  A. mild. B. steady. C. shifting. D. chilling. J.Y.Y. Kwong

  15. Ability Test • 1. Cognitive ability test • Spatial reasoning test • Ability to mentally see a 2-D drawing in 3-D • Do you turn maps around when you read them? • Especially important for designer and engineer • Sex difference? J.Y.Y. Kwong

  16. GATB Spatial

  17. Army Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Sample Test • http://www.goarmy.com/util/asvab1.htm • You can have a free trial with feedback. Try it! J.Y.Y. Kwong

  18. Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Sample Test The ASVAB is a multi-aptitude test battery that is designed to measure your aptitudes at this time in your life. It consists of ten short individual tests covering Word Knowledge, Paragraph Comprehension, Arithmetic Reasoning, Mathematics Knowledge, General Science, Auto & Shop Information, Mechanical Comprehension, Electronics Information, Numerical Operations and Coding Speed. When you take the ASVAB prior to enlisting, not only do you receive scores on each of these individual tests, but several individual test results are combined to yield three academic composite scores: Verbal, Math and Academic ability. Sample items are provided here for each of the ten ASVAB tests. For each test, read the example which has been answered for you and make sure you understand it. Then, answer the sample items that follow. To do so, select the correct answer from the alternatives provided. Click on the response that best answers your question. You will receive feedback as you move through the sample test. This sample ASVAB is provided for career guidance only. Success in answering these questions does not imply any acceptance or ability in the administration of the actual ASVAB required for Army recruits. J.Y.Y. Kwong

  19. Ability test • 2. Psychomotor ability test • Ability to manipulate objects and use tools • Involves fine precision skills and dexterity • Sex difference? J.Y.Y. Kwong

  20. Knowledge / Skills Tests • Assess what a person already knows and how well a person perform a particular task (present oriented) • V.s. general ability to do or to learn (future oriented) • Typing skill (present oriented) vs. Dexterity (future oriented) J.Y.Y. Kwong

  21. Auto and Shop Information • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The The Auto and Shop Information has 25 items about automobiles, shop practices, and the use of tools. Example: • A chisel is used for (B. is the correct answer) •  A. prying. B. cutting. C. twisting. D. grinding. • Now, try the following sample questions on your own: • 18. A car uses too much oil when which parts are worn? •  A. pistons. B. piston rings. C. main bearings. D. connecting rods. • 19. The saw shown is used mainly to cut                                                                           •  A. plywood. B. odd-shaped holes in wood. C. along the grain of the wood. D. across the grain of the wood. J.Y.Y. Kwong

  22. Job Knowledge Tests

  23. Personality Tests • A person’s tendency to behave consistently in a particular way • Examples: • NEO Personality Inventory • Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory J.Y.Y. Kwong

  24. Results Optimism: • Class • Male: 6.11 Female: 3.92 • Comparison to norm? • HK Norm • Male: 7.11 Female: 5.97 • Set different standards J.Y.Y. Kwong

  25. Results Logical Orientation: • Class • Male: 7.11 Female: 5.50 • Comparison to norm? • HK Norm • Male: 6.78 Female: 5.79 J.Y.Y. Kwong

  26. Personality tests • Used in managerial selection, senior AO, etc.. in HK • Issue of faking good • Issue of cultural difference • 我不喜歡出席舞會宴會. J.Y.Y. Kwong

  27. Assessment Center • A series of exercises that simulate actual tasks done on the job • Usually used for assessing management skills • Last for one to several days J.Y.Y. Kwong

  28. Assessment Center • Tasks • In-basket / In-tray exercise • You have returned to the office after a vacation… Your In-Tray is full… 60 minutes to deal with all the items… • Leaderless group exercise • Problem solving (地球將會爆炸, 太空船有5個位…) • Role-play (游說其他經理支持你的建議…) • Presentation J.Y.Y. Kwong

  29. Assessment Center • Tasks • In-basket • Leaderless group exercise • Problem solving • Role-play • Presentation • Dimensions assessed include • Oral communication • Problem solving • Interpersonal relations • Planning and organizing J.Y.Y. Kwong

  30. Emotional intelligence (EI) • Gardner (1983) • Multiple intelligence – interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence • Daniel Goleman (1995) • Attributes required for senior managerial roles – people-related skills are more important than IQ or technical skills • Emotional intelligence J.Y.Y. Kwong

  31. Emotional intelligence (EI) • Emotional intelligence • E.g., Self-awareness; motivation; empathy • EI develops naturally with age but people can be trained in it • Case: American Express Financial Advisors uses EI • Financial decisions are driven by emotion (e.g., trust, security) than facts or figures • Trained to develop awareness of customers’ emotional reactions • Trained group: increase business by 18.1% • Control group: increase business by 16.2% • 88% believed that EI is important to their performance J.Y.Y. Kwong